Please find below points taken and abridged from the work Shiratul Islam Shaykh Muhammad bin Abi Bakr better known as Imamzadah d.573.
The Sunan Related to Zakat & Charity
Zakat is a protection for one’s wealth, it has been mentioned alongside prayer, and both are inextricably linked.
Charity is not mixed with one’s personal property except that it destroys it.
The sunnah is that the leader appoints a person who gathers sadaqah from the wealthy and distributes it to the needy.
The person giving should take from their median property as opposed to their best or worst quality.
The owner of wealth should know the month when their Zakat is payable and not go beyond it.
A person should give their wealth in a good state and repelling greed.
A person should send away a supplicant happy.
A supplicant should pray with goodness for the person giving.
Extra charity extinguishes mistakes and repels a bad ending.
There is a hadith which states that “Deal with sadness and worries with charity for by means of it Allah will remove harm from you, grant you victory over enemies, and grant you steadfastness at times of difficulty.”
A person should intend by charity helping a person to worship, and should seek his best wealth and seek out the people of scrupulousness, piety and goodness from the believers.
If a person gives to another after they have asked then there is no harm in this no matter who they are, for the supplicant has a right even if they come on a vehicle.
A supplicant should not be turned away under any circumstance, even if it is with a kind word or a small amount.
A person should not give except that which is in excess of his and his family’s needs, and not go to extremes in charity by spending his own and his families maintenance.
A person who gives charity early in the day avoids tribulation.
A person should give charity quietly and not announce it.
A person should donate the reward of their charity to ancestors.
A person should not turn away a supplicant from their door and thereby be punished.
If a person does not have anything to give he should say “May allow grant us and you rizq”
A person should not cut off a supplicant request but rather give him something or a gentle response.
A person should take advantage of a supplicant at their door, for there were those who would think bad of themselves if a supplicant, gust or visitor did not come to them.
A person should not count that which they give to a supplicant.
A person should not expect a reward, thanks or praise from the person they give to.
A person should try to give charity directly.
A person should give charity to whom they feel inclined to in their heart.
A person should spend that which they have separated for charity and not regard it as being from their wealth.
A person should give to a content person from the believers who does not ask for more than they are given.
A person should not give that which they would not take from another, but rather that which they would choose for themselves.
A person should not accept something or a gift for that which they have given.
A person should not remind a needy person of that which they have given them.
A person should not regard as lowly the small amount that they have, rather they should give whatever is possible.
The Types of Charity
Charity is not of one type.
Guiding a lost person is charity.
Removing harm from the pathway is charity.
Explaining something to a confused person is charity.
To adjudicate between two people is charity.
To help a person to carry something to their vehicle or to lift it is charity.
A kind word is charity.
To smile in the face of one’s brother is charity.
Walking to the prayer is charity.
A person’s spending upon themselves and their family is charity.
To plant and cultivate crops which are eaten from is charity.
Likewise teaching beneficial knowledge, digging a well from which people take water, building a masjid, to give a copy of the Quran, having a child who prays for ones forgiveness after their death.
Seeking forgiveness for the people of Islam is charity.
Salutations upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is charity.
To reconcile between people is charity.
The best form charity is to a person’s close relatives, the best of it being to a relative who holds enmity towards them and is ill.
A Muslim man should not make a vow for charity or fasting, for it may be that they are unable to fulfil it.