Category Archives: Kaydani/Umdah

Kaydani: Disliked Acts in Prayer -Pt.12

The specific are seventeen:
1- the Imam waiting in the prayer for the one whose footsteps he heard[1]
2- lengthening the second unit more than the first in the obligatory prayers[2]
3- The Imam and follower halting at a verse regarding mercy and punishment, this applies to the munfarid in the obligatory prayers only[3]
4- Prostrating on the coil of the turban[4]
5- Men pressing their thighs against the stomach[5]
6- Likewise their placing their arms on the ground
7- Removing a shirt or cap, likewise wearing them with slight movement[6]
8- The Imam lengthening the prayer such that it is difficult for the congregation[7]
9- The Imam shortening the congregational prayer due their being in a hurry[8]
10- The Imam referring to the congregation to prompt him after he has recited the amount which is sufficient for the prayer[9]
11- Reciting loudly in the optional prayers of the day[10]
12- The Imam reciting a verse of prostration in a silent prayer except at the end of the surah[11]
13- Repeating a verse out of happiness or sadness in the fard without an excuse except in the optional and sunnah prayers[12]
14- Repeating a surah in one unit of the obligatory prayer[13]
15- Men’s prayer with the sleeves raised up to the elbows [14]
16- The follower saying at a verse of encouragement and warning: Sadaqallah Taala wa Ballaghat Rusuluhu[15]
17- Supporting oneself against a wall, pillar and its like without excuse in other than the optional prayers[16]
[1] If the Imam is in the bowing position and hears the footsteps of someone entering the masjid does he lengthen the bowing so that they maybe able to catch the unit of prayer? Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with him) said: I asked Abu Hanifah and Ibn Abi Laylah about this and they both regarded it as disliked. Abu Hanifah said: I fear a great matter, meaning shirk, for him. Hisham reports from Muhammad that he disliked it and from Abu Muti’ that he saw no harm in it. Abul Qasim al-Saffar said: If the man is rich then it is not permissible to wait for him, if he is poor then it is permissible. The jurist Abu Layth said: If the Imam knows the person approaching then he does not wait for him, because it resembles favouring him, and if he does not know the one approaching him there is no harm (in waiting for him), because this is helping others with an act of worship. Badai al-Sanai (1/209)
[2] It is reported from Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with him) that: The first unit is lengthened more than the second unit in the fajr prayer only. It is disliked to lengthen the second unit more than the first unit with more than two verses. Muhammad bin Hasan al-Shaybani said: I like it that the first unit is lengthened more then the second unit in all of the prayers. Al-Tabyin (1/130), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/542)
[3] Meaning ceasing recitation or listening in order to supplicate for paradise when reaching a verse relating to the mercy of Allah (the most high) and seeking refuge when passing by a verse relating to the hellfire. It is disliked to pause and supplicate because in the prayer one should be listening to the recitation of the Quran, and that Allah (the most high) has promised mercy to those who listen and stay silent when the Quran is recited. Also the answer of supplications in not definite, especially in the case of one who is busy in supplicating and not listening to the Qurans recitation as was mentioned in al-Bahr (1/364).
In the work Minhah al-Khaliq (1/364) it is mentioned that the in the optional prayer the one praying by himself may supplicate if he wishes.
[4] This is disliked if it took place without need such as in the case of the ground being extremely hot or cold. If the coil of the turban was on the head as opposed to the forehead, and prostration was made on it without the forehead coming into contact with the ground the prayer is not correct. This was the position of Ibn Nujaim in al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/337), al-Shurunbulali in Maraqi al-Falah (p.337), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/500). However there are other opinions in the madhab which state that the prayer would still be correct. This was mentioned in al-Badai (1/210), al-Kanz (1/117), Multaqa al-Abhur (1/97).
[5] Except if the row is crowded in which case it is not disliked, because the one praying should try not to cause any trouble to those praying next to him. Al-Jawhar
[6] However if it is with excessive movement it invalidates the prayer
[7] Meaning that the Imam increases beyond the sunnah amount as has been mentioned previously. And because this leads to them losing the concentration in their prayer, it is apparent that it is makruh tahrimi. Al-Jawhar
[8] Meaning the Imam hurrying such that the sunnah elements of the prayer are not performed. Al-Jawhar
[9] In this scenario the prayer of the Imam and the who prompts him is not invalidated, even though it is preferable not to prompt the Imam after he has recited the amount of Quran which is sufficient for the prayer. Al-Umdah (1/191), Rad al-Muhtar (1/418), Majma al-Anhur (1/119)
[10] This also applies to the Imam, this is because the optional prayers of the day are regarded as being like the obligatory prayers of the day which are all offered silently in congregation. As for the optional prayer during the night, then the one praying by
himself has a choice in reciting aloud or silently. Al-Tabyin (1/127), Majma al-Anhur (1/103)
[11] Meaning in the prayers which are performed silently in congregation, except if the verse of prostration is at the end of the portion of Quran recited, and then they all bow, as it is included in the bowing.
[12] If the verse is repeated due to a reason such as to recite it properly due to not having recited it correctly the first time then it is not disliked. Likewise it is not disliked to repeat them in the optional and sunnah prayers even without a reason, because this has been reported from a group of the pious early Muslims. Al-Jawhar
[13] Likewise in two units if able to recite another surah, if unable to recite another surah then it is not disliked to repeat it in the second unit due to necessity. This all relates to the obligatory prayers as opposed to the optional prayers in which it is not disliked to repeat the surah in a unit or two units. Al-Jawhar
[14] This ruling also applies to the area of the arms leading up to the elbows. This is when the sleeves have been rolled up before the prayer and then the prayer has begun. As for rolling up the sleeves whilst in prayer then this would invalidate the prayer as it is excessive movement. Al-Shurunbulaliyah (1/106), Durar al-Hukkam (1/106),al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/25), Rad al-Muhtar (1/640)
[15] Because the one praying behind the Imam should silent and listening.
[16] Because it entails a lack of khushu without a valid reason such as illness in the obligatory and compulsory prayers. Al-Jawhar al-Kulli

Kaydani: Disliked Acts in Prayer – Pt.11

*Chapter Six: Disliked acts within the prayer
They are fifty nine
The general are forty two:
1- Repeating the takbir[1]
2- Counting the verses and their like with the hand[2]
3- Placing the hands on the hips[3]
4- All that is from the behaviour of tyrants[4]
5- Tanahnuh without excuse even if without letters[5]
6- Clearing mucus/phlegm from the throat[6]
7- Blowing which cannot be heard[7]
8- Holding dirhams and its like in the mouth such that it does not prevent from reciting[8]
9- To have the head raised whilst bowing[9]
10- Swallowing that which is between the teeth if a small amount[10]
11- Leaving any of the sunnahs
12- Completing the recitation when bowing[11]
13- The invocations (adhkar) being recited in the movements[12]
14- Placing the hands before the knees on the ground to prostrate without an excuse[13]
15- Raising the hands after the knees when standing
16- Squatting like a dog[14]
17- Covering the mouth without being overcome by yawning
18- Closing the eyes[15]
19- Moving stones except if it is not possible to prostrate, he may move them once or twice[16]
20- Wiping dust and sweat from the forehead before finishing
21- Raising the garment
22- Yawning[17]
23- Stretching the arms[18]
24- Cracking the fingers[19]
25- Seeking rest/resting in the prayer[20]
26- Spreading out the fingers in other than the bowing[21]
27- Reciting quickly[22]
28- Not having the head level with the back when bowing[23]
29- Taking three consecutive steps without reason, even if pausing after each step[24]
30- Swinging to the right and left[25]
31- Killing a louse with less than three (strikes)[26]
32- Likewise burying it[27]
33- Spitting out saliva[28]
34- Removing the leather sock (khuff) with slight movements[29]
35- Smelling fragrance[30]
36- To cool oneself with a cloth or fan with less than three (movements)
37- Specifying chapters for particular prayers such that none others are recited[31]
38- Combining between two chapters by leaving one between them in a single unit[32]
39- Moving from one verse to another even if there is a surah between them[33]
40- Preceding an earlier surah to a later surah, even if in two units[34]
41- Tasmiyah before every surah in every unit[35]
42- Holding a child without excuse[36]
[1] Such as saying at the beginning or when moving from position to another: “Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar” because it is not to be said twice. It is regarded as being makruh tanzihi because there is no evidence mentioning that it is prohibited. Al-Jawhar
[2] There is a difference regarding counting with the finger or whilst holding a piece of string. As for pressing down with the fingertips and keeping count in ones heart there is agreement that it is not disliked. The issue mentioned here is makruh tanzihi because it is not from the actions of the prayer which break ones concentration. More details can be found in al-Luknawi’s Nuzhah al-Dhikr (p.65-75).
[3] This is by the placing of the hands on the hip, because it entails the leaving of the sunnah method of placing the hands.
[4] Meaning any kind of action which is the behaviour of arrogant tyrants with people such as the raising of the garment when prostrating so that they may not become soiled. And such as placing a cloth on the ground to prostrate on out of arrogance and without a reason. Al-Jawhar
[5] If one is overcome by it and no letters are emitted then it is disliked. If letters are emitted then it invalidates the prayer, because it is regarded as speech. If it is due to a reason it does not invalidate the prayer because of the impossibility of avoiding it. Al-Tabyin (1/155)
[6] The term in Arabic is ‘tanakhum’. It takes the same ruling as clearing the throat, such that if two or more letters are omitted then the prayer is invalidated. In one manuscript of the text it mentions ‘takhattum’ which is to wear a ring within the prayer with slight movements. Al-Dur al-Mukhtar and Rad al-Muhtar (1/652)
[7] It is the emitting of air from the mouth. Al-Kasani said in al-Badai (1/216): ‘it is disliked to blow whilst in the prayer because it is not one of the actions of the prayer and there is no need for it, as opposed to breathing which is necessary. Is the prayer invalidated by blowing? If it cannot be heard it does not invalidate, if it can be heard then it does invalidate’.
[8] If they prevent the uttering of the letters it is not permissible as mentioned in al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/35). The statement of Qadi Khan that: ‘there is no harm that one prays whilst there is in the mouth dirhams or dinars which do not prevent recitation’ indicates that it is makruh tanzihi. Rad al-Muhtar (1/641)
[9] Meaning having the head higher than the back whilst bowing, because this is a leaving of the sunnah of having the back totally straight. Similar to this is the lowering and tucking in of the head whilst bowing. Al-Jawhar
[10] Because it is not possible to avoid it except if is a large amount. The scholars differentiated between a large and small amount, they said a large amount was anything greater in size than a chickpea. Al-Tabyin (1/159)
[11] See al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/333), Rad al-Muhtar (1/473). Al-Nablusi said in al-Jawhar: ‘It is disliked to complete the compulsory or recommended recitation (of the Quran) whilst bowing, as for if the obligatory recitation is completed when bowing the prayer is invalidated’. It is mentioned in al-Badai (1/218) that: ‘It is disliked to recite in other than the standing position’
[12] Meaning the invocations (adhkar) of bowing and prostrating occurring in the movements of the prayer. For example one completes the tasbih of bowing whilst rising up from it to the standing position. Similar to this is the reciting of the takbir whilst bowing and prostrating. All of these are makruh tanzihi as they are not what has been mentioned in the sunnah. Al-Jawhar
[13] Because this is not what has been reported to us from the sunnah.
[14] This is by sitting on the posterior whilst raising up the knees
[15] Because it negates concentration and is regarded as a type of fidgeting. The sunnah is for the one praying to look at the place of his prostration, therefore by closing the eyes one cannot implement this sunnah. Also each part of the body has its portion of worship, even including the eyes as mentioned in al-Badai (1/217)
[16] Due to not being able to prostrate on the ground because of them, so he moves them. Al-Halabi said in Sharh al-Muniyah that the one praying may level the area by moving the stones once and not more than this. Al-Jawhar
[17] Because it is regarded as laziness. If one is overcome by yawning then one tries to repress it as much as possible, if unable to repress it one covers the mouth with ones hand or sleeve. Badai al-Sanai (1/34)
[18] It is regarded as being an act of laziness. Al-Badai (1/215), al-Tabyin (1/163)
[19] It is to stretch them until they crack. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/21), Kanz al-Daqaiq (1/163), Durar al-Hukkam (1/107)
[20] It is by leaning and placing ones weight on one foot and then later switching to the other foot, seeking to rest by means of this. It is regarded as being a form of fidgeting. Al-Jawhar
[21] It is not desirable to spread out the fingers except when bowing. Al-Dur al-Mukhtar (1/476)
[22] Meaning reciting the Quran hurriedly such that the letters are not uttered correctly. This also applies to the reciting of the tashahhud and other invocations in the prayer.
[23] Because it is leaving the sunnah method of bowing. It is makruh tanzihi. Al-Jawhar
[24] The hanafi scholars have categorised walking within the prayer into two categories.
First: That the walking is without reason, if the person praying walks continuously for a large distance then the prayer becomes invalidated, even if they did not turn away from the qiblah whilst walking. If the amount of walking was a large distance but it was not continuous but rather spread over the units then it does not invalidate the prayer.
Second: That the walking was for a reason, if it is to perform wudu if one breaks one wudu during the prayer, or as in the prayer of fear, then the prayer is not invalidated and nor is it disliked. Rad al-Muhtar (1/628) and Dur al-Mukhtar (1/628)
[25] See al-Jawharah al-Nayyirah (1/63)
[26] Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani (Allah be pleased with him) said: Killing a louse in the prayer is more preferable to me than to bury it, Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) preferred the view of burying the louse underneath stones. This is also reported from Ibn Masud (Allah be pleased with him). However Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with him) disliked both of these because there is no harm feared from a louse. Umar and Anas would kill louse (when in the prayer) as mentioned in al-Tabyin (1/166). In al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/33) it is mentioned: the author of al-Zahiriyyah said: ‘If the one praying takes a louse in the prayer it is disliked for him to kill it, rather he buries it underneath the stones, and this is the position of Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him)’.
[27] Meaning with less than three movements. In Sharh Muniyah al-Musalli it is mentioned that to bury louse and fleas is disliked in the masjid outside of the prayer when one is not praying. Perhaps Abu Hanifah chose the view of burying rather than killing due to this not entailing any spillage of blood on the hand or clothing of the one praying, even if the amount is overlooked in terms of the validity of the prayer. If it is in the masjid there is no harm in killing it with t
he above mentioned condition except if he is reasonably sure that he will [please check] after finishing the prayer. Therefore with this detail one can join between that which is reported from Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) that one buries the louse whilst one is in the prayer, and that which is reported from him that if one buries it in the masjid one has done wrong. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/33)
[28] Meaning whilst in the prayer on to the ground or ones clothing. Al-Halabi said in Sharh al-Muniyah that spitting was disliked except if the one praying was unable to repress it such as whilst coughing. In that case it is not disliked to spit below ones left foot as long as one is not in a masjid. It is preferable to gather the saliva by spitting it into a corner of ones clothing. Al-Jawhar
[29] Likewise the shirt and other clothing.
[30] Meaning to deliberately sniff or inhale the scent. This ruling does not apply to someone noticing a fragrance. Al-Jawhar
[31] This applies to all chapters except the Fatihah which is compulsory to recite in every prayer. It is disliked because one would then be leaving the other chapters of the Quran and would be giving the impression of superiority of some chapters over others. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/363), Majma al-Anhur (1/106)
[32] It is disliked to combine the recitation of two chapters in between which there is a chapter or a number of chapters in a single unit. As for in two units if there is between the two chapters two or more chapters it is not disliked. If the difference between them is one chapter it is said that it is disliked, and it is said: that if it is lengthy it is not disliked as if they were the length of two short chapters. Fath al-Qadir (1/342)
[33] Moving from a verse in a chapter to another verse in another chapter, or within the chapter to another verse missing out the recitation of some verses. Fath al-Qadir (1/342), al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/35)
[34] Meaning to recite in one unit a chapter, then in the second unit recite a chapter which comes before it in the Quran. Or someone in one unit recites a chapter and then recites after it another chapter which in terms of sequence comes before it in the Quran. As for the situation when the person praying recites in the first unit the chapter ‘al-Nas’ (which is the final chapter of the Quran) in the second unit they should recite the same chapter again. Fath al-Qadir (1/342), al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/35).
All of the above is disliked when done deliberately, in al-Muhit it is mentioned that if the above is done due to a reason or accidentally then there is no harm. Al-Jawhar
[35] It is reported from Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with them) that the basmalah should not be recited at the beginning of a chapter, because it is not a verse of the chapter. In al-Badai (1/204) their opinion has been declared to be the most correct. Al-Tumurtashi said in Minh al-Ghaffar that the difference regarding it was whether it was recommended or not, otherwise there is agreement that it is not makruh. Muniyah al-Musalli (p.85), Ghuniyah al-Mustamali (p.308), Halabi al-Saghir (p.192), Tanwir al-Absar (p.15), al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/330)
[36] If a child is carried in the prayer due to a reason then it is not disliked, as for when done without a reason or need then it is disliked. Badai al-Sanai (1/241-242)