Adhan and Darud

Salam. I remember landing in Amman on a warm September evening back 1998. Apprehensively I was taken to a flat where I would be staying for a weeks and sharing with a brother I was acquainted with but did not really know that well. The next morning I was awoken for the first time by the Adhan drifting over to the flat atop a hill in the al-Jubeihah district from the University Masjid (Jami al-Jamiah) below.
Soon I began to notice that the Adhan that was called had the addition of the Darud at its end. Interested about this addition to the call to prayer we were soon to learn that this practice had been declared to be valid according to the Hanafi scholars. I thought that the following from the ‘Mawsuah’ might be of benefit for those who too may have wished to have some further information on it.

Darud After The Adhan
The Shafi and Hanbali scholars are of the view that Darud after the adhan by the Muadhin should be uttered by him silently. See Muntaha al-Iradat (1/130), al-Mughni (1/428) and Mughni al-Muhtaj (1/141).

The Hanafi and Maliki scholars however regard the Darud to be recited aloud after the Adhan to be a good innovation (bidah hasanah).

Sh Ahmad al-Bashishi in his treatise called ‘Tuhfah al-Saniyyah fi Ajwibah al-Asilah al-Mardiyyah’ mentioned that that the first person to add the Salutations and Blessings upon the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) after every Adhan upon the minaret was during the time of Sultan al-Mansur Haji Ibn al-Ashraf Shaban, which was in Shaban in the year 791.

It was introduced before this during the time of Sultan Yusuf Salah al-Din bin Ayub, and it was said before the Adhan of Fajr every night in Egypt and the Levant (al-Shaam): Assalamu Alaika Ya Rasulallah. This continued till the year 777.

There was an order to add to it by Salah al-Din al-Barlasi so that it be said: Assalatu Wassalamu Alaika Ya Rasulallah. This was then added to the end of every Adhan in the year 791. See Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (1/261) and al-Dusuqi (1/193)

Evidences and Sh Abu Bakr al-Mulla
In brief the scholars that argue that it is permissible to recite aloud the Darud after the Adhan mention that the hadith which encourages darud does not mention whether it be aloud or silently, the matter therefore has some leeway, and due to a lack of a prohibiting evidence (in their view) it is acceptable to do so.

Likewise I asked Sh Yahya al-Mulla about the loud recital of Darud after the Adhan during a lesson, he mentioned that Sh Abu Bakr al-Mulla issued a legal verdict (fatwa) mentioning that the practice was permissible. (The Sheikh used the words ‘La Bas Bihi’, and the context of the answer indicated to the practice being permitted even thought the term ‘La Bas Bihi’ can denote ‘Karahah’ in some contexts whilst at other times used to refer to something which is desirable.)

Dealing With Criticism and Praise

Salam. I have mentioned Sh al-Khadim before on the blog. I had to sit in a waiting room today and knew I would be some time, so I took along Sh al-Khadim’s excellent commentary on the ‘Matharah al-Qulub’ poem which has been translated by Sh Hamza Yusuf. Sh al-Khadim’s commentary can only be described as ‘Mawsui’ in nature, and as one of the Mauritanians said: ‘It is as if he has summarized the Ihya and presented it’. The Sheikh goes into quite some detail, however the following stuck out. It is taken from p.102.
He said in al-Ihya: Know that people are of four conditions in relation to one who criticises or praises (them):
The First is to be happy at the praise and thank the one praising, and to be angry with with the criticism and have hatred for the critic, along with retaliating and wishing to relatiate. This is the condition of most of the creation, and it is the utmost level of disobedience on this matter.
The Second condition: To feel vexed at the critic inside, but to refrain his tongue and limbs from retaliating. And inside he is happy and content at the one praising, but prevents his outer from expressing joy. This is deficient except that in relation to that which is before it is perfection.
The Third: And it is the first of the levels of perfection, it is that his critic and the one praising are equal to him, he is neither saddened by criticism nor delighted with praise. Some of the worshippers think themselves to be like this, but are deluded if they do not test themselves with its signs, and look at it (the self) for its signs…
The Fourth Condition: It is truthfulness in worship and to dislike praise and loathe the one praising as he knows that he is a tribulation for him, smashing his back, harmful to him in his religion. And he loves the critic as he knows that he has gifted to him his faults and guides him to that which is important for him and gifts him his own good actions…
Until he (al-Ghazali) said: The most that the likes of us desire is the second condition, which is to hide the happiness and dislike of the critic and one praising, and not to express this in words or actions.
As for the third condition which is the viewing as equal between the one praising and critic then we do not desire it, then if we seek from ourselves a characterstic of the second condition we do not fulfil it for we find it necessary to hurry to honour the one praising and fulfilling his needs, and find it difficult to honour the critic and praise him, and fulfill his needs. We are unable to treat both of them equally in our outward action just as we are unable to in the secret of the heart.
And whoever is able to treat equally the critic and one praising in outward action is deserving of being taken as an example in this age, for if he is found then he is red sulphur which is discussed but not seen, how would it then be about the other two stations above it?

Give My Salams To…

Salam. A common custom amongst muslims is the statement: ‘give my salams to so and
so’. I found the following information of benefit in the ‘Mawsuah’.
Passing on Salams
The scholars are agreed that the initiating the greeting of salam is a recommended and virtuous act, and replying to it is obligatory, whether the salam be communicated in the written form or via another person who is asked to convey this greeting (note: one who is asked to convey the salam should ensure that it is communicated to the person intended).
Gibril (Alaihi Salam) Sends His Greeting
Evidence for this can be found in the narration of al-Bukhari (7/106) and Muslim (4/1896) where the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) informed Sayyida Aishah (ra) that Gibril (as) sent his salam to her, she replied : ‘Wa Alaihi Salam wa Rahmatullah’
The Required Etiquette
Imam al-Qurtubi said: In the hadith of Aishah is the fiqh that the if a person sends his salam to another, he should reply as in the same manner as if he spoke to him. A man came to the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) and said: My father sends his salam to you: He replied: Upon you be peace and upon your father be peace (Wa Alaikas salam Wa Ala Abikas salam)
[The above hadith was narrated by Abu Dawud (5/398) Imam al-Mundhiri said: This chain
contains unknown narrators]

Choosing a Name

Salam, found the following discussion which clarified in a little more detail something I had read in the past, I hope visitors may also find it of benefit.


Basic Ruling
The basic ruling is that it is permissible to name a child with any name aslong as it has not been prohibited. And that it is desirable (mustahab) to name with every name beginning with Abd and linking with one of Allah (the Exalted’s) names.
Abdullah and Abd al-Rahman
The most beloved of names to Allah (the Exalted) are Abdullah and Abd al-Rahman, the basis for this is the hadith that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said: The most beloved of names to Allah are Abdullah and Abd al-Rahman
[Muslim (3/1682)]
And also the narration of Abu Dawud that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said: Name (ie. your children) with the names of the Prophets, and the most beloved of names to Allah are: Abdullah and Abd al-Rahman…’.
[Abu Dawud (5/237) it chain was weakened by Ibn al-Qattan as in Fayd al-Qadir (3/246) of al-Munawi]
Ibn Abidin mentioned citing al-Munawi that: Abdullah is more virtuous absolutely even than Abd al-Rahman, then the most virtuous of names after them both is Muhammad, then Ahmad, then Ibrahim.
[Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (5/268)]
An Issue of Respecting the Names
The authors of Fatawa al-Hindiyyah however add that: Naming with other than these names in this age is preferable, because the common people shorten them when calling out.
[Fatawa al-Hindiyyah (5/362)]


The Name Muhammad and Understanding the Previous Narrations
Ibn Abidin clarifies that the superiority of naming a child with the name Abdullah and Abd al-Rahman is not absolute, however it is interpreted as referring to those who wish to name a child with a name beginning with ‘Abd…’, as the pagan Arabs would name their children Abd Shams and Abd al-Dar. The above does not negate that the name Muhammad and Ahmad are the most beloved of names to Allah (the Exalted), for He (the Exalted) did not choose for His Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) except that which is most beloved to Him, and this is the correct position.
[Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (5/268)]


Virtues of the Name Muhammad
The author of Tuhfah al-Muhtaj said: It is not disliked to name with the name of a Prophet or Angel, but rather there is narrated regarding naming with the name of our Prophet (Upon Him be Salutations and Peace) a number of virtues.
[Tuhfah al-Muhtaj (9/373)]


From amongst the virtues reported is that which al-Utbi narrates that the people of Makkah say: There is no home in which there is a person named Muhammad except that they see good and are given provision.
[Mawahib al-Jalil (3/256)]

Dawah Essentials

Salam. I came across the following interesting discussion related to the topic of dawah, a matter which is of particular concern to many in the West. Both for those who work within Muslim and non Muslim communities.


Preaching: It is to remind with good with that to which the heart softens towards.
[Al-Tarifat of al-Jurjani]
Legal Rulings
An examination of the statements of the jurists (fuqaha) shows that the basis of preaching is that it is a desirable (mustahab) act.

Imam al-Haskafi said: Reminding on the pulpits and taking heed of advice is the sunnah of the Prophets and Messengers
[Al-Dur al-Mukhtar (6/421)]

It is mentioned in the Fatawa al-Hindiyyah that: It is not permitted for a preacher to ask people for anything in his gathering for preaching, as it will be regarded as obtaining the dunya via the means of knowledge.
[Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah (5/319)]

Qualities of a Preacher/Daee
Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan, the scholarly ruler of Bhopal in his work ‘Abjad al-Ulum'(2/536) outlines the following necessary qualities of a preacher/daee:
-That he be a responsible adult
-That he be upright
-That he be a muhaddith: What is meant by this is one who is familiar with the books of hadith. He can read them and understand their meanings, knows of the sound narrations and the discarded ones, whether this is by the knowledge imparted by a Hafidh or understanding of a Jurist (faqih).
-That he be a mufassir: What is meant is that one is familiar with the explanation of meanings of the words of the Quran, and that which is reported from the early Muslims regarding them. Along with this it is desirable that he be eloquent, addressing the people at the level of their understanding. Along with this being gentle and a person of high moral character.
-That he not be in a financially difficult situation
Extracted and adapted from the ‘Mawsuah al-Kuwaitiyyah’

Evidences for Wudu

I recently managed to retrieve a copy of this article written many years ago. It is based mainly on the magnificent ‘Ilaa al-Sunan’ and to a lesser extent other notes in Urdu to the Jami al-Tirmidhi (as far as I remember). I hope it is of some benefit for those seeking the evidences for the wudu as understood by the hanafi Imams, please note that I have not had the opportunity to look over this piece for a number of years, therefore feel free to submit any corrections or queries. Please refer to the endnotes for detailed discussions on the status of the narrations mentioned. We ask Allah (the Exalted) to give us tawfiq to serve the other fiqh projects we have set out on, not least the matn of ‘Kifayah al-Mubtadi’ which we hope to edit and annotate in detail. Ameen.
A Description of the Prophetic Wudu
The prerequisite for offering prayers is to be in the state of purity. This is achieved by making wudu(ablution). If one does not make wudu then the prayer is invalid.

The Quran states:
O you who believe! When you rise up for salah, wash your faces, and your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles’[1]

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said :
The key to paradise is salah, and the key to as-salah is wudu[2]

One should begin by making the intention in ones heart that: I am making wudu to become pure. As the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Verily actions are by intentions and there is for everyone only what he intended[3]

If one does not make intention then the wudu is still valid, although one should try to make it.

One should then say ‘Bismillahi Walhamdulillahi’ (I begin in the name of Allah and all Praise is due to Allah) as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
There is no wudu for him who does not mention Allah’s name upon it[4]

Wash both hands up to the wrists 3 times, as many of the companions saw the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) do this[5]

Use a miswak for cleaning the teeth and then gargle the mouth 3 times as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If I did not consider it a burden on my Ummah, I would have commanded them to use siwak at the time of every wudu[6]

And if one does not have miswak then one can use ones fingers[7]

Then snuff water up into the nostrils three times with the right hand and clean the nose with the left hand, as Abu Wail bin Shaqiq bin Salamah said:
I saw Ali bin Abi Talib and Uthman bin Affan make wudu thrice, and they washed their mouths (separately) from snuffing watter, and they both said; This is how we saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) make wudu[8]

When one is fasting care must be taken not to exert in snuffing the water as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If you make wudu then exert in gargling and snuffing the water into your nose, except when you are fasting[9]

Then wash your face three times. Was from where the hairline usually begins to below the chin, and from one earlobe to the other taking care to wash the area between ear and beard. As Abdullah bin Zayd bin Asim was asked how the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) performed wudu, he demonstrated it wherein he:
Inserted his hands (in the vessel) and brought water out and washed his face three times..[10]

Then make khilal of the beard by running water through the beard with the fingers as Uthman said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard[11]

And Anas bin Malik narrates that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) when he made wudu used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said: This is what my Lord – The great and exalted – has ordered me to do’[12]

The wash both arms beginning with the right, up to and including the elbow three times. As Uthman was observed by Hurmaan bin Uthman that:
He washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way[13]

Then make khilal of the fingers by passing the left hand between the right hands fingers and vice versa. As the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If you make wudu then wipe (between) your fingers[14]

The moisten the hands and fingers and pass them over the head once. As Abdur Rahman bin Laylah said:
I saw Ali making wudu……and he wiped his head once, and then he said: this is how the Messenger of Allah (s) made wudu[15]

And Ibn Abbas saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) making wudu…and he said:
He wiped his head and ears with one wipe[16]

Then insert the fingers into the ears and wipe behind the ears with the inner part of the thumb.

Then wipe with neck with the back of the hands as Wail bin Hujr reports that:
The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) wiped his head and his neck[17]

Then wash both feet including the ankles 3 times, rubbing in between the toes, starting with the right as Uthman (ra) when demonstrating the wudu of the Prophet (s):
Then he washed his right foot to the ankles 3 time and his left foot to the ankle 3 times[18]

And as al-Mustaurad said:
When the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger[19]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said[20]:
It is not hidden that rubbing will become obligatory (fard) if the water does not reach parts of the limbs (that need to be washed) except by it, and if they reach all parts of the limbs without rubbing then it is recommended (mustahab)

One should also rub whilst washing the various limbs as Abdullah bin Zaid narrates that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu with two thirds of a mudd (of water) and rubbed over his forearms[21]

If one does make wudu out of order as described above then the wudu is still valid, although it is sunnah to follow the order as Miqdam ibn Ma’d Yakrib said:
I came to the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) with water for wudu, so he washed his hands three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears-their outsides and insides-and washed each of His feet three times[22]

And that a man came to the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) and asked about a man who made ghusl from janabah but water did not reach some parts of his body, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Wash that area and then pray[23]

One should wash the body parts one after the other leaving no time gap between them, however if one does wash some parts of his body at different times then wudu is valid as:
Ibn Umar (ra) urinated within the market, then made wudu and washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a funeral (janazah) so he entered the masjid then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it[24]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said::
Al-Nawawi said in Sharh al-Muhadhab (1/29): It is a Saheeh report and the deduction from it is correct, as Ibn Umar performed this in the presence of those attending the funeral prayer and no one condemned him for it.

One should begin with the right hand side such as the right arm, right foot etc when making wudu as Aishah (ra) said:
The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs[25]

And as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If you make wudu then begin with the right[26]

One should take care not to be wasteful with with water when making wudu as Anas (ra) said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to make wudu with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa or up to five mudds[27]

And from among the bad habit which leads to this is to be immersed in conversation with friends and others whilst making wudu, such that a great amount of water is wasted due to our minds being focused on other than the wudu, the scholars have explained that it is disliked to talk when making wudu and that one should focus on making dhikr.

Sheikh al-Mubarakpuri comments[28] that the majority of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no specific fixed amount (of water) needed for wudu, which cannot be exceeded or diminished from.

Imam al-Nawawi said[29]:
The Muslims are agreed that the amount of water that is sufficient for wudu and ghusl is not fixed, but one can make use of a little and a large (amount)

One should wash also wash more than the required area in wudu as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
My nation will with bright streaks of light from the traces of wudu[30]

Abu Hurairah the said:
If he can lengthen his streak of light he should do so[31]

Abu Zarah reported that when Abu Hurairah made ablution he washed his arms above his elbows and his feet up to his calves, he was asked why do you do this? He said:
This is the extent of the embellishment[32]

It is sunnah to wash each body part three times, one may also wash them once or twice as it has been reported that the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) washed each body part once as in the hadith of Anas (ra) who said that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu washing each body part once[33]

Abdullah bin Zaid said that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu (washing each part) twice[34]

And in the hadith of Uthman (ra) informs us that
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu washing each body part three times[35]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said[36]:
Its evidence…is that (washing the body parts) in wudu three times is the best, and it is the sunnah of the Prophets, and (to wash the body parts) twice is the medium way, and to wash the body parts once is rare…and when washing three times was His (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) sunnah and the sunnah of the Prophets (upon them be peace) it is apparent that He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) would consistently perform it, except rarely as is established from Him limiting to washing once or twice.

It is unlawful to exceed washing the body parts three times due to the lengthy hadith in which the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu washing each body part three times and then said:
This is how wudu is done, whoever exceeds this has done wrong…[37]

Then make duaa after wudu, such as:
Ashadu al-lailaha illalah wahdahu la sharikala wa ashadu anna muhammad abduhu wa rasulu[38]

And :
Subhanaka allahumma wa bi hamdik la ilaha illa anta wahdaka la sharika lak astaghfiruka wa atub ilaik.[39]

Then one should dry their face and limbs after making wudu as Qais bin Sa’d (ra) said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) came to visit us….The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made Ghusl after which we ga
ve him a cloth with which he wiped his body[40]

Benefit: In the Fatawa Sirajiyyah (p.75) it is mentioned that to wash the hands is sunnah before and after eating, and in the Fatawa Qadi Khan (p.781) it says that the hands should be washed before eating but should not be dried with a towel as opposed to washing hands after eating when they should be dried.

Things That Invalidate Wudu:
Wudu is broken by anything that comes out of the two private parts such as urine stool and semen as Safwan bin Asal said:
The Messenger of Allaah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to order us not to remove our leather socks (khuffs) for three days and nights [when on a journey] except in the case of major impurity (janaabah). However [one could perform ritual ablution including wiping over the socks due to] sleeping, excreting or urinating[41]

Sleeping can also break ones wudu, but only in certain instances. If one sleeps lying down on the back or laying on the sides the wudu has been broken as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
The one who sleeps in sajda does not have to make wudu until he lies down, as if he lies down his posterior (?) will become loose[42]

And as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
The eye is the drawstring of the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wudu[43]

And if someone falls asleep sitting or standing or in sajda in salah their wudu in intact as Abu Hurayrah said:
The one who is…..asleep, and the one who is asleep standing and the one who is asleep in sajdah (is in) wudu, until they lie down (when asleep) and if they lie down then they make wudu[44]

Note: a woman falling asleep in sajdah will have to remake her wudu as the posture of a woman in sajda is different to that of a man, and allows wind to escape.

If a person in a complete salah laughs, loud enough to be heard by those near him then his wudu has broken and his salah is invalid, he must remake wudu and pray again. As Abu Musa said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) was praying when a man entered the masjid that had poor eyesight and fell into a hole in the masjid, and many of those praying laughed, and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) ordered those who had laughed to repeat their wudu and prayer[45]

And a similar incident when the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Whoever laughed out loud then let him repeat his wudu and prayer[46]

And a similar narration is reported from the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) ordering those who laughed to repeat their wudu and prayer[47]

And that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
He who laughed out loud in his prayer let him repeat his wudu and prayer[48]

Those wishing to read a lengthy and rigorous discussion on the authenticity of the above narrations are referred to Ilaa al-Sunan (1:132-144)

If one spits out blood then the wudu is broken if the predominance of the spittle consists of blood, as Ibn Sirin said to a man who spat out blood:
If the majority of the spit is blood then make wudu[49]

Similarly if one has a nosebleed that flows from the wound wudu is broken as:
Saeed ibn al-Musayyib had a nose bleed whilst praying so he went to the house of Umm Salamah wife of the Prophet (s), so he made wudu and did not speak and went back to build upon his prayer[50]

And as Tawus said:
If someone has a nosebleed in his prayer he should leave and make wudu and build upon what remains of his prayer[51]

Ibn Abd al-Barr said:[52]
It is well known from the madhab of Umar (ra) that it is obligatory to make wudu from a nosebleed if it is flowing, and likewise every flowing blood from the body, and similar to this is reported from Ali and Ibn Masud

Vomiting a mouthful will break the wudu as:
If a person has a nosebleed or vomits,…he should leave and make wudu…[53]

And as Ali (ra) said:
If someone has a nosebleed in his prayer or vomits he should make wudu and not speak and pray the remainder of his salah[54]

Things Which Do Not Invaliate The Wudu:
Touching ones private parts does not break wudu as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) was asked about a mans touching his private part. Should he make wudu? He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
And is it except a part of him?[55]

Imam al-Tahawi said:[56]
Some of the Companions from whom wudu for touching the private parts is reported, the opposite is also reported…And we do not know anyone from the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (s) who gave the fatwa for wudu from it except Ibn Umar, and he differed in this by the majority of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace).

For a more extensive discussion see Ilaa al-Sunan (1:161:172)

Touching a woman with or without desire does not break wudu as Aisah (ra) says:
The Messenger of Allah prayed and I was lying in front of Him as in front of janazah except that he when he…he would touch me with his foot[57]

Allamah al-Sindi said:[58]
And it is known that it was a touching without desire, and so the author used it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the wudu, as for touching with desire-its proof is of wudu not breaking, as the original is of wudu not breaking until a proof for breaking is produced by one who holds this view….and as for the words of Allah Taala: ‘Or if you touch the women’ (al-Nisa:43) the scholars of tafsir said it is marital relations and this is reported from our Master Abdullah bin Abbas.

Ibn Kathir said:[59]
It is authentically reported from more than one source that Abdullah Ibn Abbas held this opinion.

As for doubt about the wudu breaking, that is if one cannot recall the wudu having broken the wudu is intact. There is a hadith of the messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) which is often misunderstood, He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If one of you feels something in his stomach and he is not sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not-then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell.[60]

This does not mean that if one knows that one has passed wind but that one has not heard or smelt anything that wudu is intact. Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani explaining this said:[61]
Therefore there is agreement (ijma) that if no noise or smell but passing wind is definitely known even then wudu will break. The proof for this is in Abu Dawud from which we know that He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said this to one suffering from whispering

The hadith referred to is that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Shaitan will come to one of you…and he thinks that he broke wudu and he didn’t, and if he finds this….[62]

With regards to the issue of doubt al-Shawkani said:[63]
Al-Nawawi said in Sharh Muslim: this hadith is a foundation (asl) from the foundations of Islam, and a great principle from the principles of the deen, and that things are adjudged to remain upon their original basis until the opposite of it is established and the incidental doubt does not harm it. And from the issue in which the hadith is mentioned, and that is the one who is not sure of taharah and has doubt of having broken it, he adjudged to remain on taharah, and there is no difference between the doubt occurring whilst in the salah or occurring outside the salah. And this is our madhab and the madhab of the majority of the scholars from the salaf and khalaf….And as for if he is sure of breaking wudu and thinks he might have taharah, it is obligatory for him to make wudu according to the consensus of the Muslims.

Al-Haskafi said:[64]
And if he is sure of taharah and has a doubt of breaking wudu or the opposite, the situation of which he sure is relied upon.
[1] Al-Maidah:6. The scholars have derived from this verse that the bare minimum for wudu to be achieved is to wash the above mentioned parts, however limiting oneself to this is not recommended
[2] Mishkat al-Masabih (1/39)
[3] al-Bukhari (1, 6684) Muslim (1907)
[4] Abu Dawud (1/24) and others, the authenticity of the hadith has been questioned by Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani in Dars al-Tirmidhi (1/231), however there are other authentic narrations with the same meaning mentioned in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/43). Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani concludes that the hadith is taken for tasmiyah to be recommended due to (i) many of the scholars weakening the hadith of tasmiyah with the precise wording above (ii) many of the companions describing the Prophet (s) manner of making wudu and none have mentioned the saying of tasmiyah (iii) al-Nimawi in Athar al-Sunan (P.30) cites a hadith from Mujam al-Saghir al-Tabarani that the Messenger of Allah (s) said; O Abu Hurairah if you make wudu then day Bismillah and Alhumdulillah…’ it was declared Hasan (well authenticated) by al-Haithami in Majma al-Zawaid (1/220). The point of note is that alhumdulillah is mentioned which no scholar regards as wajib, thereby indicating tasmiyah is sunnah. (iv) The hadith is interpreted to refer to the perfection of wudu.

Also please note that a number of the well known hanafi works mention that the wording is: Bismillah al-Adheem, wal-Hamdulillah ala Din al-Islam
[5] Fath al-Bari (1/255) Muslim (3/121)
[6] Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/44): reported by Malik, Ahmad (2/400), al-Nasai, and it was declared Saheeh (rigorously authenticated) by Ibn Khuzaimah, and al-Bukhari (4/128) mentioned it in a taliq form as mentioned in Bulugh al-Maram
[7] See Sheikh Al-Uthmani’s discussion surrounding this in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/48) onwards
[8] Ibn al-Sakan in his Saheeh as was stated by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir, al-Nimawi declared it Saheeh in Athar al-Sunan (1/31)
[9] Nail al-Awtar (1/178) of Imam al-Shawkani who cites Abu Hasan bin al-Qattan saying: This is Saheeh
[10] Muslim (1/123)
[11] al-Tirmidhi (31) and it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (151,152) as in Bulugh al-Maram
[12] al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (3000) Abu Dawud (145), al-Haithami declared its narrators trustworthy in Majma al-Zawaid (1/96)
[13] al-Bukhari and Muslim
[14] al-Tirmidhi (38) he said the hadith was Hasan Saheeh, it was also declared Saheeh by al-Baghawi, Ibn al-Qattan, al-Hakim, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Khuzaimah
[15] Abu Dawud (115) the sanad is Saheeh as in Talkhis al-Habir of Hafidh Ibn Hajar
[16] Abu Dawud (1/19) al-Shawkani said in Nail al-Awtar (1/155): al-Darqutni weakened it, but Abul Hasan bin al-Qattan replied to him and said: That which he weakened it by is not a weakness, the hadith is either saheeh or Hasan
[17] Majma al-Zawaid (1/232) al-Shawkani in Nail al-Awtar cites some narrations in proof of this and comments that the totality of the narrations can be taken to be relied upon. Al-Qinnawji in Badur Ilahlah (P.28) writes that Ibn al-Qayyims and al-Fairozabadi’s opinion that nothing with regards to this is saheeh is incorrect, as the hadith of wiping the neck due to the number of chains of narrations is Hasan
[18] al-Bukhari and Muslim
[19] al-Tirmidhi (4) who said: This hadith is gharib, we do not know it except from the hadith of Ibn Lahiah. Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir: But it is followed up by Laith bin Sa’d and Umru bin al-Harith, it is reported by al-Baihaqi and Abu Bishr al-Dawlabi, and al-Darqutni in Gharaib Malik from the chain of transmission of Ibn Wahb from three, and it was declared saheeh by Ibn Qattan, see Ilaa al-Sunan (1/70)
[20] Ilaa al-Sunan (1/70)
[21] Ahmad (4/390) and declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (118) see Bulugh al-Maram (P.9)
[22] Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/88) that its isnad is authentic and it is reported by al-Diya in al-Mukhtarah
[23] al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (10/10561) and al-Haithami declared its narrators authentic in Majma al-Zawaid (1/273)
[24] al-Muwatta (66) declared Saheeh by Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/91)
[25] al-Bukhari (1/29) Abd al-Razzaq (1/37) and Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/9)
[26] Reported by the four and declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (176) see Bulugh al-Maram (P.9)
[27] Muslim (1/156) and others
[28] See Tuhfah al-Ahwadhi (1/61)
[29] See Sharh Saheeh Muslim (1/148)
[30] Muslim (246) al-Bukhari (150,136)
[31] Imam al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1/39) discusses these being words of Abu Hurairah and not the words of the Messenger of Allah (s), also see Sheikh al-Uthmani’s discussion in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/98-100) surrounding this
[32] Muslim (250)
[33] al-Bukhari (157)
[34] al-Bukhari (158)
[35] al-Bukhari (159)
[36] See Ilaa al-Sunan (1/73)
[37] Abu Dawud (135) al-Nasai (1/88) Ibn Khuzaimah (174) and Ibn Majah with Saheeh chains of narration as in Talkhis al-Habir of Hafidh Ibn Hajar
[38] Muslim (1/122)
[39] al-Bannuri in Maarif al-Sunan (1/205) said: al-Nawawi said: reported by al-Nasai in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah in a marfu form and al-Haithami in his Zawaid (1/239) in a marfu form from Abu Saeed al-Khudari and He said its narrators are Saheeh except that al-Nasai after citing it in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah said: this is a mistake as the correct (version is that it is) mawquf
[40] al-Shawkani said in Nail al-Awtar (1/194): The narrators of Abu Dawud are Saheeh
[41] al-Nasai (127) al-Tirmidhi (96) and Ibn Khuzaimah (196) who declared it Saheeh, see Bulugh al-Maram (P.11) of Hafidh Ibn Hajar
[42] Ahmad (1/256) Abu Yaala (4/2487) Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/132) and al-Haithami declared its narrators authentic in Majma al-Zawaid (1/247)
[43] Abu Dawud (203) Hafidh Ibn Hajr in Talkhis al-Habir comments that it was declared Hasan by al-Mundhiri, Ibn al-Salah and al-Nawawi
[44] al-Baihaqi (1/122) Hafidh Ibn Hajar declared its isnad to be good in Talkhis al-Habir (1/44)
[45] al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, al-Haithami said in Majma al-Zawaid (2/82) that its narrators were trustworthy and there was a difference regarding some of them
[46] Imam Muhammad in Kitab al-Athar (1/421) Jawhar al-Naqi (1:42) Abu Hanifah in his Musnad (1/247) al-Darqutni (1/167) al-Baihaqi (1/146) Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/134) This hadith by the chain of the Imam has come in musnad and mursal (form) and the narrators of Kitab al-Athar are well known and trustworthy
[47] Abd al-Razzaq (2/376) Nasb al-Rayah (1/50) Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/135) declares it to be Saheeh and its narrators to be that of al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Nimawi said in Athar al-Sunan (1/36) that its isnad is mursal qawi
[48] al-Baihaqi, Jawhar al-Naqi (1/43) Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/139): Ibn al-Jawzi weakened it due to Baqiyyah being mudallis, and perhaps he heard it from some of the weak ones but removed their names, Ibn al-Turkmani and al-Zaylai (1/62) answered this by saying that Baqiyyah is truthful (saduq), and has clarified hearing, and that a truthful mudallis if he clarifies this the allegation of tadlis is removed from him. I say: The rest of its narrators are trustworthy, as Ibn al-Jawzi’s silence indicates…and the hadith is Hasan and it has supporting narrations
[49] Abd al-Razzaq (1/146) declared Saheeh by Ibn al-Turkumani in al-Jawhar al-Naqi (1/140)
[50] Declared Saheeh by Ibn al-Turkmani in al-Jawhar al-Naqi as stated by Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/120)
[51] Ibid
[52] Ilaa al-Sunan (1/120)
[53] Abd al-Razzaq (2/339) al-Nimawi declared it Saheeh in Athar al-Sunan (1/35)
[54] Ibn al-Turkmani declared it Saheeh in Jawhar al-Naqi, it was also declared Hasan by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (1/275)
[55] Abu Dawud (182) al-Nasai (159) Ibn Majah (483) al-Tirmidhi (85) Ahmad (4/22,23) Ibn Khuzaimah (34) Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/163) it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Hibban, Ibn al-Madini said: It is the best of the hadith of Busrah, Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir (1:46): It was declared Saheeh by Amr bin Ali al-Fallas and he said: It is the most established of the hadith of Busrah and it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Hazm
[56] See Sharh Maani al-Athar (1/47)
[57] Declared Saheeh by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (1/48) and al-Zaylai in Nasb al-Rayah (1/38)
[58] See Taliq al-Nasai (1/38)
[59] See Ghayah al-Maqsud (1/179)
[60] Muslim (361)
[61] Dars al-Tirmidhi (1/293)
[62] al-Bazzar (171) Kashf al-Astar (281) al-Haithami said in Majma al-Zawaid (1:242): reported by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (11556,11948) with a portion of (the hadith), and al-Bazzar with similar to it, and its narrators are those of the Saheeh
[63] Summarized in Ilaa al-Sunan (1:173) by Sheikh al-Uthmani citing from Nail al-Awtar (1/197,198)
[64] Durr al-Mukhtar (1/156)

Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi (Allah have mercy on him)

Sh Ibrahim al-Yaqubi (Allah have Mercy on him)
He is the most learned scholar and Sufi: Ibrahim bin Ismaeel bin Muhammad Siddiq bin Muhammad Hasan al-Yaqubi al-Hasani al-Jazairi, then al-Dimashqi. The origin of his family returns back to the Algeria.
His great grandfather Sh. Muhammad al-Hasan migrated with his family as part of the famously known ‘Migration of the Scholars’ (Hijrah al-Mashaikh) during the middle of the thirteenth Islamic century, along with Sh. Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Saklawi and Sh. Muhammad al-Mubarak al-Kabir. His grandfather reached Damascus in the year 1263 Hijri.
Early Life and Seeking of Knowledge
Sh. Ibrahim was born in Damascus on the night of Eid al-Adha in the year 1343 Hijri and was raised under the supervision of his father who taught him whilst he was still young the fundamentals of Aqidah and the Quran in the recitation of Warsh.
He began the study of various sciences firstly in the ‘Maktab’ of Sh. Mustafa al-Jazairi, then he was moved after some months by his father to the ‘Maktab’ of Sh. Muhammad Ali al-Hijazi al-Kaylani where he remained for around six years the duration of which he memorized most of the Quran.
He studied with the spiritual guide Sh. Muhammad al-Hashimi, the Sheikh of the Shadhili order, who resided nearby to the home of Sh. Ibrahims father. Sh. Ibrahim would accompany Sh. al-Hashimi to the Jami al-Baridi, Jami Nur al-Dinal-Shahid and the Madrassa al-Shamiyah wherein would take place circles of dhikr and learning. He memorized with him during this time ‘Nadhm Aqidah Ahl al-Sunnah’ and a portion of ‘Diwan al-Mustaghnami’. He studied with him the ‘Sharh al-Risalah’ of al-Sharnubi and al-Zarqani, and ‘Bulghah al-Salik’ in Maliki fiqh, ‘Sharh Nadhm Aqidah Ahl al-Sunnah’, ‘Miftah al-Jannah’ and ‘Risalah al-Qushayriyyah’ which took place at private lessons in his home.
He studied with him in the Umayyad mosque and other places the commentary of ‘Ibn Ashir’
by Sh. Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Kafi called ‘Al-Murshid al-Mueen’, ‘Tafsir Ibn Ajibah’, ‘Sharh al-Hikam’ of Ibn Ajibah, ‘Sharh al-Bayquniyyah’ of al-Zarqani, ‘Awarif al-Maarif’ of al-Suhrawardi, ‘Nawadir al-Usul’, ‘Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah’, ‘Al-Hikam al-Ataiyah’ and the two Sahihs.
He was granted a general ijazah by him on the 24th of Shawwal 1379 Hijri in the rational and transmitted sciences, aswell as the litanies of the Shadhili order.
He attended with his father whilst young the lessons of the Muhaddith Sh. Muhammad Badr al-Din al-Hasani, aswell as regularly visiting and benefitting from the lessons of his uncle Sh. Muhammad al-Sharif al-Yaqubi, whose public lessons he attended in the prayer niche (mihrab) of the Maliki’s in the Umayyad mosque and his home.
He also studied with his uncle Sh. Muhammad al-Arabi al-Yaqubi in the prayer niche of the Malikis in the Umayyad mosque.
He studied the fourth volume of the work ‘Al-Durus al-Nahwiyah’ of Hisni Nasif with Sh. Muhammad Ali al-Qattan and kept the company of Sh. Hussein al-Baghjati from whom he benefitted from in the sciences of calligraphy, recitation (tajwid) and Prophetic biography (sirah).
He attended during this period of time the public lessons which would take place in the Sinaniyyah mosque by Sh. Ali al-Daqr, Sh. Hashim al-Khatib, Sh. Muhammad Shakir al-Misri better known as al-Himsi, Sh. Abd al-Majid al-Tarabishi with whom he studied ‘Multaqa al Abhur’ and ‘Maraqi al-Falah’. He studied with Sh. Abd al-Hamid al-Qabuni ‘Hidayah al-Mustafid’ and the text of ‘Ghayah wa al-Taqrib’.
He also studied with Sh. Abd al-Qadir al-Iskandari and Sh. Muhammad Barakat.
His father Sh. Ismail was his first spiritual guide and the most important of his teachers during his life. He took from the Shadhili path and benefitted from his instructions and training. He likewise took from him the Qadiri and Khalwati orders aswell, and was authorised in a number of them by him.
He benefitted from the lessons of Sh. Muhammad al-Makki al-Kattani, he studied with him in his home. He read with him the ‘Al-Arbain al-Ajluniyyah’, the ‘Sharh al-Bukhari’ of al-Qastallani, ‘Lataif al-Minan’ and ‘Ruh al-Quds’. He took from him the Shadhili Qadiri path. He also narrated from him the pattern chained narrations (musalsal) of mercy (rahmah), interlacing fingers, shaking hands and the hadith of Muadh Ibn Jabal. He was granted a lengthy ijazah by him in his handwriting in on the 24th of Shaban 1378.
He took from Sh. Muhammad al-Arabi al-Azuzi in Damascus when he came from Beirut, and
hosted him a number of times. He read with him the ‘Al-Arabin al-Ajluniyyah’ in one sitting, a number of treatise on some sciences of tasawwuf and was granted a general ijazah by him dated the 8th of Shawwal 1381.
He attended the lessons of Sh. Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yallas al-Tilmisani at his home. He read with him ‘Subul al-Salam Sharh Bulugh al-Maram’, ‘Sharh al-Hikam’ of Ibn Ajibah, ‘Taysir al-Wusul ila Jami al-Usul’, ‘Hashiyah al-Arusi ala Sharh al-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah, ‘Sunan Ibn Majah’, ‘Idah al-Maqsud fi Mana Wahdah al-Wujud’ of Sh. Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi. He likewise attended the lessons which would take place in peoples homes in which he read ‘Dalil al-Falihin’ and ‘Al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah’. He attended in his Zawiyah al-Samadiyah many of his circles of dhikr, and studied the ‘Hashiyah al-Bajuri’ on the Shamail of al-Tirmidhi and ‘Ghaliyah al-Mawaiz’. From him he took the Shadhili way and was granted an ijazah verbally.
He studied with Sh. Muhammad Salih al-Farfur ‘Tafsir al-Nasafi’ from the beginning up to Yasin. ‘Sharh Ibn Aqil’ on the Alfiyyah of Ibn Malik, ‘Sharh al-Manar’ of Ibn Malik, ‘Sharh al-Sirajiyyah’, ‘Jawahir al-Balaghah’, ‘Asrar al-Balaghah’, ‘Al-Kamil’ of al-Mubrad, ‘Tadrib al-Rawi’, ‘Risalah al-Qushayriyyah’ and attended his morning lessons on the ‘Hashiyah Ibn Abidin’, ‘Sahih al-Tirmidhi’, ‘Al-Minan al-Kubra’, ‘Sharh al-Hikam’ of Ibn Ajibah, ‘Al-Yawaqit wal-Jawahir’ and around 8 volumes from ‘Umdah al-Qari’ of al-Aini. In addition he attended his evening lessons on ‘Sharh al-Qutb al-Razi ala al-Shamsiyyah’ on logic (mantiq) by Najm al-Din al-Katibi, ‘Hashiyah al-Adawi ala Khulasah al-Hisab’ of al-Amili, ‘Hashiyah al-Bajuri ala al-Jawharah’ a number of times, ‘Sharh al-Musayarah’ of Ibn Abi Sharif. He attended after after the Asr prayer in his home the ‘Tafsir al-Kashaf’ of al-Zamakhshari and ‘Dalail al-Ijaz’ and was granted a written ijazah by him.
He studied with Sh. Abd al-Wahab al-Hafidh better known as Dibs Wazit the text ‘Multaqa al-Abhur’ in the Umayyad mosque, and attended his public lessons in the month of Ramadan. He sought an ijazah from him and was authorised with one verbally a number of times and promised a written one, but passed away before he could write it. Sh. Abd al-Wahab would say: If you wish to ask regarding a ruling in the hanafi madhab and do not find me, then ask Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi in the prayer niche (mihrab) of the Malikis in the Jami al-Umawi’.
He visited Sh. Ahmad al-Harun a number of times, was given ijazah in his specific litanies.
He attended some of Sh. Muhammad Saeed al-Burhani’s lessons in the Umayyad mosque for the books ‘Al-Minan al-Kubra’ and ‘Al-Warif wal Maarif’ and took the the Shadhili path from him, and there was between both of them a close relationship.
He attended some of Sh. Muhammad Abi al-Khair al-Maydanis lessons in Dar al-Hadith for the book ‘Sharh al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah’ of al-Zarqani, and heard from him the hadith of mercy, and took the Naqshbandi path from him. He read to him the beginning of ‘Al-Jami al-Saghir’ of al-Suyuti and was given a general ijazah by him and was promised a written one.
He studied with Sh. Nuh al-Albani at him home the ‘Risalah al-Sibt al-Mardini fi Amal bi al-Rub al-Mujib’.
He read to the Quran recitor Sh. Muhammad Sadiq Alwan the whole Quran, and read the ‘Sharh al-Jazariyyah’ and ‘Manar al-Huda’ of al-Ashmuni to him.
He studied with Sh. Muhammad Abi Yusr Abidin in a private gathering some of the treatise of Ibn Abidin and who said: My successor in fiqh and usul is Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi.
He obtained numerous ijazahs other than the ones mentioned, amongst them being the ijazah from Sh. Abd al-Karim al-Saqli, Sh. Zayn al-Abidin al-Tunisi and Sh. Ali al-Boudilimi.
He memorized a large number of texts, their sum total exceeding 25,000 lines of poetry. He would cite much of them during his lessons, such as the ‘Al-Kafiyah al-Shafiyah’ of Ibn Malik and his ‘Al-Alfiyyah’. Likewise ‘Ghayah al-Maani’ of al-Baytushi, ‘Nadhm Mughni al-Labib’, ‘Lamiyah al-Afal’, ‘Muthalathath Qatrab’, ‘Nadhm Mukhtasar al-Manar’, Al-Kawakabiyah’ in Usul, ‘Maunah al-Rahman’ in Hanafi fiqh, ‘Matn Ibn Ashir’, ‘Tuhfah al-Hukkam’ better known as ‘Al-Asimiyyah’ in Maliki fiqh.
He memorized ‘Matn al-Zubad’, ‘Nadhm Matn Ghayah wal-Taqrib’ in Shafi fiqh.
He memorized ‘Al-Jawharah’, ‘Al-Shaybaniyyah’ and ‘Bad al-Amali’ in Tawhid.
In hadith terminology he memorized ‘Al-Bayquniyyah’, ‘Nadhm Nukhbah al-Fikr’ and close to half of al-Iraqi’s ‘Al-Alfiyyah’.
In Balaghah he memorized ‘Al-Jawhar al-Maknun’ of al-Akhdari and in logic (mantiq) ‘Al-Sullam’, ‘Nadhm al-Shamsiyah’ and ‘Nadh Adaab al-Bahth’ of al-Marsafi.
In inhertiance law he memorized ‘Al-Rahabiyyah’ and ‘Lamiyyah al-Jabari’, and in recitation (tajwid) ‘Al-Jazariyyah’ and ‘Tuhfah al-Atfal’.
In literature he memorized the ‘Diwan al-Hamasah’ and portions of ‘Al-Mufadalliyat’, ‘Al-Muallaqat al-Ashr’ and many of the well known odes (qasaid).
From the texts written as prose he memorized ‘Al-Risalah’and ‘Matn al-Khalil’ in Maliki fiqh. In grammar ‘Qatar al-Nada’ and ‘Shudhur al-Dhahab’. Likewise ‘Al-Sanusiyyah’, ‘Matn Nur al-Idah’, ‘Al-Manar’, ‘Aqidah al-Sheikh Arsalan’ and ‘Al-Hikam al-Ataiyyah’.
He began teaching before reaching the age of 20 in the Jami al-Sinan Pasha. And was appointed as a teacher in the Jami Darwish Pasha in the year 1376 Hijri. Before this in 1373 he was appointed Imam in Jami al-Zaytuna and then the Jami al-Baridi and then the Umayyad mosque in the prayer niche (mihrab) of the Malikis and then the Hanafis, until the year 1390 Hijri.
He was appointed a teacher linked to the fatwa administration in the year 1378 Hijri.
He taught in the Jami al-Uthman, Shariah Secondary school, Mahad Fath al-Islami, Mahad Isaf Tullab Ulum al-Shariyyah, Madrassa al-Ghazali lil Ahdath and Madrassa Sijn Qilah Dimashq.
He performed the obligatory Hajj in the year 1392 via the land route, and this was his only Hajj.
He left behind a number of works, amongst them being:
-Qabs Min Siyar al-Nabawiyyah
-Al-Jami li Shawahid Ulum al-Arabiyyah (not complete)
-Al-Nur al-Faaid fi Ulum al-Mirath wal-Faraid
-Miyar al-Afkar wa Mizan al-Uqul wal-Anzar on logic (mantiq)
-Risalah al-Faraid al-Hisan fi Aqaid al-Iman
-Al-Kawkab al-Wada fi Aqidah Ahl al-Sunnah al-Gharra (poem)
-A commentary of Bulugh al-Maram (not completed)
-A poem on Adab al-Bahth wal-Munazarah
-On the issue of organ transplant the work: Shifa al-Tabarih wal-Adwa fi Hukm al-Tashrih
Naql al-Ada
-His collection of chains of transmission (thabat) called Al-Tadhkirah
-Lectures on Islamic character called: Taqwim al-Nafs
-Qalaid al-Faraid on literature
-Lessons he dictated on tafsir in Jami al-Uthman called: Al-Muhadarat fi Tafsir al-Quran
-Mujam al-Shuyukh wal-Aqran
-A text on belief which he authored for students of the shariah secondary school in Damascus which he also taught them called: Al-Aqidah al-Islamiyyah
-A versified version of Nur al-Idah (not complete) in hanafi fiqh
-An abridgement of Sunan Ibn Majah
-Diwan Shi’r
He left behind a number of treatise on the sciences of: Balaghah, al-urud, al-Wad’, Ilghaz and Usul al-Fiqh. He also has notes on a number of works.
Critical Editions
He edited a number of manuscripts, amongst them being:
-Qawaid al-Tasawwuf of Sh. Ahmad Zarruq
-Al-Hikam al-Ataiyyah which was published fpr the first time in in 1384
-Al-Anwar fi Shamail al-Nabi al-Mukhtar of al-Baghawi
-Al-Muntakhab fi Usul al-Madhab by al-Akhsekti
-Badi al-Nadham fi Usul al-Fiqh of Ibn Saati (not complete)
-Hadiyyah Ibn Imad fi Ahkam al-Salah
-Al-Haiyah al-Sanniyah fo al-Haiyyah al-Sunniyah of al-Suyuti
-Al-Fath al-Rahmani fi Fatawa al-Sayyid Thabit Abi al-Maani (second volume).
Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi was an expert in a number of the Islamic sciences, and firmly grounded in both the Hanafi and Maliki schools, both of which he taught. It is said that he had memorized the ‘Hashiyah Ibn Abidin’.
His lessons on Usul where those of a Mujtahid due to his vast knowledge the principles of the madhahib and their evidences. He taught ‘Al-Talwih’ a number of times, and ‘Hawashi al-Mirat’ in Usul, also ‘Al-Muwafiqat’ of al-Shatibi a number fo times and the ‘Mustasfa’ of al-Ghazali amongst other works.
His expertise in the Arabic language was evident from his teaching of ‘Mughni al-Labib’ of Ibn Hisham a number of times, likewise ‘Sharh al-Rida ala al-Kafiyah’ of Ibn al-Hajib and the commentaries of ‘Al-Alfiyah and the ‘Kitab al-Sibaway’.
Sh. Ibrahim also taught logic and philosophy, he taught ‘Shuruh al-Shamsiyah’, ‘Sharh al-Tahdhib’, ‘Al-Basair al-Nasiriyah’, ‘Sharh al-Maqawulat’, ‘Sharh al-Isharat’ of al-Tusi, ‘Shuruh al-Sullam’ of al-Isaghawji.
Personal Traits
He possessed an illuminating face which attracted people towards him. The humility of the scholars was evident on him, he was softly spoken and would not distinguish himself from others. He would pay his full attention to those who visited him, they would enjoy his conversation and he would not tire of them nor their questions. He would answer them clearly and in detail in the manner of a precise learned scholar. Despite this he loved solitude, he said: If it was not for knowledge and seeking it I would not have met any of the people’. Also saying that the most beloved moments to him were in a lesson where he would taste the enjoyment of the knowledge and time spent in the rememberance of Allah.
He did not seek fame nor did desire to gain it, and did not teach for worldly gain. If he taught and gave a sermon would do so seeking the pleasure of is Lord. He lived a life full of modesty and suffered hardship as he had made it all an endowment to knowledge and serving others.
He bore with patience the personal difficulties he experienced and was content with that which Allah had apportioned for him. One of his young sons died on the morning of a lesson which had been arranged in his home. He welcomed the students, taught them the lesson from ‘Al-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah’ as was his habit and treated them as a guest should be treated. When he finished the lesson he informed them of the death of his son.
He would make much rememberance of Allah in solitude and would busy himself in spiritual retreats. He would guide and train those around him with his state and actions. To him real tasawwuf was not empty words and hollow zikr, therefore he would say: Tasawwuf is acting on knowledge, Tasawwuf is good character (akhlaq), whomsoever surpasses you in akhlaq has surpassed you in tasawwuf…
He would speak for a number of hours in a clear precise manner. His way of explaining was such that he would take the most complex of issues and would present them in way which they were clearly understood, this is why his lessons were beloved to people.
He kept up to date with current schools of thought and matters which were of concern to those in the Muslim world. He would not discuss any school of thought without first studying it. He studied the Torah and Bible, the discussions and books authored in critique of other religions. He would keep up to date with the publishing of new books and new ideas.
His teachers with whom he studied honoured, loved and respected him. And would ask his view on difficult matters.
Passing Away
Sh. Ibrahim had informed his family of his death 6 months before his passing away, and he then informed them again 3 days before his death that he would be meeting his Lord on the night before the day of Jumah. He instructed them to pray over him on the Asr of Friday and asked to be buried next to his mother, and that they not do anything against the sunnah nor anything unlawful during the preparation and performance of his funeral and burial. He also asked his debts to be paid and the trusts left with him to be returned to their owners.
Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi passed away on the night before the day of Jumah on the 26th of Rabi al-Awwal in the year 1406 Hijri. His eldest son Sh. Muhammad Abu al-Huda lead his funeral prayer in the grand Umayyad mosque. A large funeral procession followed respectfully to the cemetery of Bab al-Saghir where he was lowered in to his grave by his student Dr Muhammad Abd al-Latif Farfur.
A few weeks after his passing away a gathering was held in rememberance of him in the Jami al-Uthman in Damascus which was attended by numerous people of knowledge from cities all over Syria.
May Allah (the Exalted) have mercy on Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi, all the scholars mentioned in this article, Sh. Ibrahims students and all of the Muslims.
Adapted from ‘Nathar al-Jawahir wal-Durar’, any corrections are as always welcomed.

Rejoicing at Others Misfortune- Sh. al-Khadim

A Small World
I came across a thread discussing contemporary Mauritanian scholars a while back, prominent amongst the names was that of Sh. al-Khadim, a prolific author and guide of the Tijani order. I emailed the author of the post and queried about him a little further, and asked how I could get in contact with him in order obtain some of his excellent books. Where was I and where was Mauritania? Anyways Allah (the Exalted) once again faciliates in ways which surprise us. I visited one of the local Mauritanian scholars out in the small town in the wide expanse of the desert, I mentioned to him my desire to buy some of the books of Sh. al-Khadim and how could I get them from Mauritania? to my surprise I was told that Sh. al-Khadims daughter and son in law lived in the very same town we were in, and were housed a short distance from me! They were in Mauritania at the time for a short holiday but would soon return. Alhumdulillah after their return I promptly made contact and purchased the books I had been keen on acquiring.
Sins of the Tongue
An excellent work that has been taught in the UK by a student of Sh. Murabit al-Hajj is ‘Maharim al-Lisan’. It is a poem which deals with the sins related to the tongue and appears to be a part of the curriculum of religious schools in Mauritania. Sh. al-Khadim authored an excellent commentary on the text in his usual thorough manner. May Allah (the Exalted) enable us to benefit from this book, Ameen.
Rejoicing at Others Misfortune
Sh. al-Khadim explaining the sin of ‘Shamatah‘ p.34 said:
It is a person expressing joy at the misfortune of his enemy. In al-Jami’ it says: Do not express joy (at the misfortune) of your brother, such that Allah will have mercy on him and afflict you.
Al-Munawi said: A group took from this narration that: In expressing joy at an enemies misfortune is utmost harm, so beware, beware!
Yes, Ibn Abd al-Salam did give fatwa that there is no blame in happiness at the death of an enemy from the point of harm received from him ceasing… and the hadith is reported by al-Tirmidhi who said it was: Hasan

Respecting the Quran

Salam. Muslims from the Indo-Pak region are known for the manner in which they show respect to the Quran, which can be at times be in sharp contrast to some rather modern attitudes of some Muslims in the Arab world. I thought I would present some brief (but by no means exhaustive) points on this issue adapted from a longer discussion in Arabic. I hope this brief amount none the less be of benefit for those who may have an interest in this issue. [Note: The word Mushaf is used to refer to a copy of the Quran]


A Hadith on Showing Respect to Holy Books
Abdullah bin Umar (Allah be pleased with Him said) as reported in Abu Dawud (4449) :

A group of Jews came and invited the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) to al-Quff [a valley of Madinah]. So He came to them in their place of study. They said: O Abu Qasim, a man amongst us fornicated with a woman so judge between them. They placed a cushion for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) which He sat on. He then called for the Torah which was brought, and He removed the cushion from underneath Himself and placed the Torah on it, and said: I believe in you and the One who revealed you….’
Note: If this is the case with the Torah, then what about the Noble Quran?


Sh. al-Shinqiti Explains in a Unique Way
Sh. Atiyyah Muhammad Saalim mentions a story relevant to this issue. He said that Sh. al-Shinqiti (the author of Adwa al-Bayan) was praying next to a man, the man next to him placed his shoes on top of the mushaf. When Sh. al-Shinqiti saw this he picked up the mushaf and held it.
After completing the prayer the man questioned Sh. al-Shinqiti as to why he picked up and held the mushaf? And did he have an evidence that his act of placing his shoes upon the mushaf was unlawful?
Sh. al-Shinqiti replied by placing the shoes on the mans head which resulted in him getting rather angry!

Legal Verdicts On Placing the Mushaf on the Floor
From those scholars who have forbidden the placing of the mushaf on the floor are Sh. Illish of the Maliki school in his work ‘Fath al-Aliyy al-Malik’ (2/360)
We ask Allah (the Exalted) to increase our link with the Quran in the terms of respect, recitation and reflection. Ameen.