Imam Izz al-Din Abd al-Salam and Tawassul

Salam

I saw someone recently narrate from a scholar the view that Imam Izz al-Din Abd al-Salam regarded Tawassul as being unlawful.  The attribution of this to him is incorrect as was explained by Shaykh Mahmud Saeed Mamduh in his landmark work on the documentation for the hadiths on the issue of tawassul and ziyarah called ‘Raf al-Minarah‘.

He quotes on pg 44 onwards the following from his teacher Shaykh Abdullah al-Ghumari from his ‘Rad al-Muhkam al-Matin’ (pg.55) regarding the attribution of this view to Imam Izz al-Din Abd al-Salam:

This is a mistake in relating from Ibn Abd al-Salam because his legal verdict (fatwa) was regarding swearing (taking an oath) upon Allah by one of his creation, not regarding asking Him by the rank of such and such a person.  We copy his words regarding this so as to make clear what is meant.  It is mentioned in the ‘Fatawa al-Mawsuliyyah’:  As for the issue of supplication (dua) it is mentioned in some narrations that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) taught some people a supplication which has at its beginning:  “Say O Allah I swear upon you by your Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy”.  If this hadith is authentic it should be limited to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) because he is the Master of the children of Adam…and that this is unique to our Prophet due to his high rank and station.

Then Shaykh Abdullah al-Ghumari was quoted as saying:

These are the exact words of Izz al-Din which we have copied from his ‘Fatawa al-Mawsuliyyah’, and like this it was copied by the authors of the works of Khasais (special Prophetic qualities) such as Hafidh al-Suyuti, al-Qastallani and other than them both, deducing from this that swearing upon Allah by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is from his unique qualities. And this is other than what we are discussing, which is asking Allah by the rank of such and such person without swearing by them.  Between these two issues is a vast difference as is not hidden, but it was unclear to Ibn Taymiyyah who intermixed between the issues, and perfection is for Allah (Most High).

Note: rough draft under revision

Sharh Aqidah al-Awam: Four Necessary Attributes of the Prophets

Chapter Two

Regarding the Prophets and Messengers Blessings and Peace Be Upon Them

(What is Necessary in Regards to Them-Possible For Them-Their Protection-Impossible With Regards to Them-Their Number Mentioned In the Quran)

-What Is Necessary With Regards to Them (Blessings And Peace Be Upon Them)

The Author Allah have mercy on him said:

أَرْسَل أَنْبِياَء ذَوِىْ فَطَانَهْ   بِالّصِدْقِ وَالّتَبْلِيْغِ وَالأَمَانَهْ

He sent messengers possessing intelligence with truthfulness and conveying the message and trustworthiness

Commentary:

It is compulsory for every legally responsible person to believe that Allah تعالى has Prophets and Messengers.  He تعالى said:

The Messenger believes In what has been sent down to Him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. each one believes In Allâh, his angels, his Books, and his Messengers. they say, “We make no distinction between one another of his Messengers” – and they say, “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, Our Lord, and to You is the return.” [al-Baqarah:285]

And it is upon him to know that which is necessary with regards to them, that which is impossible and that which is conceivable.  There are four attributes which are necessary with regards to them:

1) Intelligence: The proof for this is that if intelligence was negated for them they would be unable to establish a proof against an opponent, and this is impossible because the Quran has shown in numerous places their establishing the proof against an opponent.  From it is His تعالى words:

And that was Our proof which we gave Ibrâhim against his people. we raise whom we will In degrees. certainly Your Lord is All­Wise, All­Knowing. [al-Anam:83]

And His تعالى words:

They said: “O Nûh! You have disputed with us and much have You prolonged the dispute with us, now bring upon us what You threaten us with, if You are of the truthful.”   [Hud:32]

And His تعالى words:

And debate with them In a Way that is better [al-Nahl:125].

And also because we have been ordered/instructed to follow, and the one being followed is not unintelligent.

2) Truthfulness: The evidence/proof for this is His تعالى words:

Allâh and his Messenger had spoken the truth. [al-Ahzab:22]

And His تعالى words:

And the Messengers spoke truth!   [Yasin:52]

And His تعالى words:

And mention In the Book Ismâ’il. Verily! He was true to what He promised, and He was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet [Maryam:54]

And because if lying was possible for them it would necessitate a lie in what He تعالى Has informed which is impossible.

3) Conveying: The evidence/proof for this are His تعالى words:

O Messenger! proclaim which has been sent down to You from Your Lord. and if You do not, Then You have not conveyed his Message. [al-Maidah:67]

And His تعالى words:

Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning In order that mankind should have no plea against Allâh after the Messengers.  [al-Nisa:165]

Giving of glad tidings and warning is not complete except by conveying, for if they did not convey the sacred laws to people they would have been concealing it. This is impossible because it necessitates concealment which is a great deficiency/shortcoming such that anyone who falls short in regards to the sacred law would have an excuse to dispute with Allah تعالى and argue claiming of lack of conveyance, and Allah تعالى has negated this in the previous verse.

4) Trustworthiness: The evidence/proof for this are His تعالى words:

I am to you a trustworthy Messenger [al-Dukhan]

And His تعالى words:

Certainly Allâh likes not the treacherous. [al-Anfal:58]

And because if they were treacherous by committing an unlawful or disliked act that unlawful and disliked act would become obedience  with regards to them, because Allah تعالى has ordered us to follow them in their statements, actions and states.

Drops of Rain: Seeking Knowledge

rain

Salam.  My friend from the Reunion Islands who gifted me a copy of the ‘Awjaz al-Masalik’ is still slowly making preparations for his journey  to Tarim (Hadramawt) to further his studies.  Thus far in addition to Tarim he has been fortunate enough to study in Jordan and South Africa, aswell as his native Reunion Islands.  He has requested peoples prayers for the final hurdles to be negotiated with tawfiq and taysir.

In relation to his plans the following is some commentary from the Awjaz regarding the seeking of knowledge which is relevant to this brothers upcoming journey, those who find it of use are once again reminded to remember this brother in their supplications.  I remember mentioning the contents of this commentary to him several years ago before he left for study in Tarim for a second time, but only now have had the opportunity to present what we briefly discussed several years ago in an organised way.

The text of the hadith in the ‘Muwatta’ of Imam Malik is as follows:

1827- He narrated to me from Malik that it reached him  that Luqman al-Hakim counselled his son and said:, “My  son! Sit with the learned men and keep close to them.  Indeed Allah gives life to the hearts with the light of  wisdom as Allah gives life to the dead earth with the  abundant rain of the sky.”

The author of the ‘Awjaz al-Masalik’, Mawlana Zakariyyah al-Kandehlawi mentions in his commentary the following (17/620-623):

That Which is Related Regarding the Seeking Of Knowledge
There are numerous verses related in the Quran al-Azim,  and well known narrations in the books of hadith  regarding the virtue of knowledge, but the Imam did not  mention anything from them but rather cited  the words of Luqman the Wise.  This is a  subtle indication to the shortest route and  easiest for seeking (knowledge).  For knowledge just as it increases  by sitting with the scholars, discussing and researching  with them,  is not attained by the perusing  of books nor their study.  As the virtues were well known in the Quran and Hadith the author  pointed out to the shortest of routes for their attainment.

[Commentary:]
Malik that it reached him– its being connected (to the  Prophet Allah bless him and give him peace) is at the  end of the hadith- that Luqman al-Hakim– the well known,  some of whose counsels are mentioned in the Quran al- Majid- counselled his son,-al-Suhaili said:  His names  is Baran…and it is said it has a ‘d’ at its beginning, and it is  said his name is: Anam, and it is said: Shakur, and it  is said: Babuli as in ‘al-Fath’.  Al-Zarqani mentioned  its like from ‘al-Fath’ and mentioned in it Bar instead  of Baran, and Aslam in place of Babuli- and said:, “My  son! Sit with the learned men and keep close to them.- With the imperative form in both instances…al- Baji said:  He means proximity to them by sitting with  them until he takes them by their hands and learns  from their wisdom, and that he does not miss from their  words that what he would miss when being at a distance  from them, even though he may be sitting with them.

He  said in ‘al-Mustakhrijah’ with a report with the wording:  ‘Keep close to them’: Perhaps mercy descends upon them,  and reaches you  along with them.  Do not sit with  the evil doers (fujjar) in case that displeasure  (sakhtah) descends upon them and afflicts you  along with them.  Al-Baji said:  The sitting with the  scholars if it is an act of worship (qurbah) then it  will be in two ways:  The first of them is one who is  unable to learn knowledge, for he sits with them seeking  blessings by their company, inclining towards them and  out of love of them.  And perhaps there occurs in there speech that which he is in need of, so his need of it makes him reflect over it and preserve it and consider it carefully until he understands it.  Perhaps he asks them regarding  an issue which he must know, and he takes it from them.   As for the one whom is able to learn knowledge, and is blessed with help for it and  desire for its study, then he sits with them to take  from them and learn from their knowledge.

Indeed Allah–  Blessed and Most High- gives life to the hearts with the  light of wisdom– it is the realisation of knowledge and  precision in action.  It is reported from Qatadah  regarding His (Most High’s) words: ‘And we gave Luqman  wisdom’ He said:  Understanding in the religion. And al -Nawawi said:  There are many opinions regading it, the  most obvious of them is that it  is knowledge consisting of gnosis of Allah (Most High)  along with penetrating insight, refinement of the self,  verification of the truth for action and avoiding (kaff) of  its opposite.  The wise one (Hakim) possesses these as  in ‘al-Zarqani’.

Al-Hafidh said regarding His (Allah bless him and give  him peace) prayer for Ibn Abbas: ‘O Allah teach him  wisdom’:  The commentators have differed over what is  meant by it here:  It is said: the Quran, it is said:  acting upon it, it is said: the sunnah, it is said:  being correct in view, it is said: fear, it is said:   understanding of Allah, it is said: intellect, it is  said: that which the intellect deems to be correct, it  is said: light which differentiates between inspiration  (ilham) and whispering, and it is said: promptness of  reply along with correctness.  Some of these views were  metioned by the people of Tafsir in the explanation of  os His words ‘And we gave Luqman wisdom’.  Al-Baji said:   his words:  Allah (Most High) gives life means its  being given life by faith, humility (khushu) and  obedience to Allah (عز و جل)…

as Allah -Blessed and Most High – gives life to the  dead earth – description of the earth- with the abundant  rain of the sky.” – in the Indian editions the word sky  is not present, but it is meant, as the rain is from  it…
Al-Zarqani said:  It (wabil) is the light rain.  And in  ‘al-Muhalla’: rain with large drops, al-Raghib said:  Wabal and Wabil:  Rain with heavy drops…

Al-Baji said:  He means that the light of wisdom makes  the heart full of life after it was dead because of  disobedience.  Just as the rain from the heavens which  is plentiful, its drops bring the earth to life with  vegetation and lushness after its barreness (lit.death).

Al-Zarqani said:  This report (balagh) was reported by  al-Tabarani in ‘al-Kabir’ from Abu Umamah who said:  The  Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace):   ‘Luqman said to his son:  My son, sit with the scholars! and listen to the words of the wise.  For indeed Allah  (Most High) gives life to the dead heart with the light  of wisdom, just as He gives life to the dead earth with  the rain’.  Al-Mundhiri said:  al-Tirmidhi graded this  chain as Hasan other than this hadith, and perhaps it is  Mawquf.

And from al-Tabarani and al-Askari from Abu Juhayfah is  its raised version: ‘Sit with the scholars, ask the  seniors (al-Kubara) and mix with the wise’.  And from  Ibn Abbas it is said:  ‘O Messenger of Allah, who should  we sit with? or it was said:  Which of our companions  are best?  He replied: The one who reminds you of Allah  when you see him,  his speech increases you in  knowledge, and his action reminds you of the hereafter’.

And from Ibn Uyaynah it was said to Isa (Upon him be  peace):  ‘O spirit of Allah who should we sit with?  He  replied:  The one whose speech increases you in  knowledge, and seeing him reminds you of Allah, and his  action encourages you towards to the next world.’  both  of them were reported by al-Askari.

And in ‘al-Dur’:  Abdullah narrates in his ‘Zawaid’ from  Abd al-Wahab bin Bakht al-Makki said, Luqman said to his  son:  ‘My son, sit with the scholars, and keep close to  them, for indeed Allah gives life to the dead hearts  with the light of wisdom, just as he give life to the  dead earth with the rain from the heavens’.

Mawlana Anwarullah al-Faruqi: Student of Haji Imdadullah

Mw Anwarullah al-Faruqi

Salam.  I wanted to share some information regarding this student of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki who it is said was a faithful representative of his teachers ‘maslaki preferences’.

As you will read he founded the Jamia al-Nizamia in Hyderabad which is an educational institution which is still functioning today and serving the Muslims of the Deccan, and is known in scholarly circles for its balanced and ‘neutral’ approach.  Insha-Allah I hope to be able to post more information on the other Khulafah of Haji Imdadullah from the ‘Nuzhat al-Khawatir’  in the future.

Mawlana Anwarullah al-Faruqi (Better Known as Fadilat Jung)

Adapted from ‘Nuzhat al-Khawatir’ of Hakim Abd al-Hayy al-Hasani (pg.1197-1198)

He is the Shaykh and most learned scholar: Anwarullah bin Shujah al-Din bin al-Qadi Siraj al-Din al-Umari al-Hanafi, al-Qandahari al-Hyderabadi, one of the well known scholars.

He was born in the village of Qandahar in the district of Nander in Deccan with four days passing from Rabi al-Awwal 1264. He memorized the Quran and studied the shorter works (mukhtasarat) with the teachers of his land. He studied with Shaykh Abd al-Halim al-Ansari al-Luknawi, then kept the company of his son Shaykh Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi in the city of Hyderabad.

He took tafsir from Shaykh Abdullah al-Yamani and Tasawwuf and spiritual wayfaring (suluk) from his father from whom he received an ijazah. He was decribed as  having gained expertise in a number of the Islamic sciences.

He performed the pilgrimage in the year 1264 where he met the great Shaykh Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki to whom he pledged allegiance and from whom he also received ijazah.

He was selected as a teacher by the ruler of the Deccan: Mahbub Ali Khan the sixth Nizam. In the year 1301 he travelled for his second pilgrimage and in the 1305 for a third, taking up residence in Madinah the Illuminated for three years. He returned to Hyderabad in the year 1308 and was appointed a teacher by the crown prince Uthman Ali Khan, and when the ruler of the Deccan Mahbub Ali Khan passed away in the year 1329 Uthman Ali Khan became the seventh Nizam in the year 1330. He proceeded to appoint Mawlana Anwarullah the minister of Awqaf in the year 1332 and gave him the title ‘Nawab Fadilat Jung’.

In Rabi al-Awwal of the year 1332 he was appointed tutor of the crown prince and his brother by which he was able to achieve great influence in religious matters by which he undertook many reforms and benefitted the land and its people.

Hakim Abd al-Hayy al-Hasani said regarding him:

“He was unique in his age in the rational and transmitted sciences (ulum al-aqliyyah wal-naqliyyah). Heavily engrossed in worship, continuous in being busied with teaching, consultation, reading of books and writing. Severe in condemnation of the people of innovation and desires. He established the Madrassa al-Nizamiyyah in Hyderabad in the year 1293. He founded an academy for writing and publishing calling it ‘Ishaat al-Ulum”.

He was tall, broad shouldered and of a medium build. Fair skinned  mixed with redness. Wide eyed and with a full beard. He did not pay excessive attention to food and clothing and took care to perform physical exercise till the end of his life.

He exercised precaution in wealth, positions and posts. He was forebearing and humble, he would visit the sick and attend funerals. He was a person of goodness and righteousness, not accumulating wealth nor caring for it. He was gentle in his speech and far removed from harsh language and boycotting others.

He would teach the Futuhat al-Makkiyyah after Maghrib till the middle of the night, and had an immense repect for Shaykh Muhyiuddin Ibn Arabi. Towards the end of his life he would spend his nights with matters relating to knowledge and would sleep after Fajr until the break of day. He was also known for his love for collecting rare books.

He authored a number of works in Urdu and Arabic, amongst them being:

  • Al-Ifham written in 2 volumes as a refutation of al-Qadiani
  • A-Aql fi al-Falsafah al-Qadimah wal-Jadidah
  • Haqiqat al-Fiqh in 2 volumes regarding the reasons for the preference of the Hanafi school and excellent qualities of Abu Hanifah
  • Anwar Ahmadi fi Mawlid al-Nabi (Allah bless him and give him peace)
  • Maqasid al-Islam in 11 volumes, all of them in Urdu.

And he has other than these works

He passed away after Jumadi al-Akhir in the year 1336 and was buried in the Madrassa al-Nizamia which he founded.

Anfas al-Arifin: Witnessing The Muhammadan Image

Salam.  Looking through the very enjoyable ‘Anfas al-Arifin’ of Shah Waliullah al-Dihlawi I came across the following passage which caught my attention.  I had read something similar to it on a discussion on the concept of  ‘Tasawwur al-Shaykh’ as practised by some  Sufi orders, and thought this passage may be of use in understanding what the ‘Akabir of the Akabirs’ viewpoint was on similar issues.  Not least when some may hastily dismiss such a matters existence and the possibility of its occurence, or more dangerously venture to pronounce verdicts of polytheism regarding such incidents (and to Allah Most High is our complaint).

I would like thank brother TK for looking through this and suggesting improvements/changes.  A scan of the page can be provided for those interested and any suggested  improvements to the translation would be most welcome.  Note: The term ‘buzurg’ means eminent,  and is often used for a venerable personality and generically for people of Allah.

Shah Waliullah al-Dihlawi said in his ‘Anfas al-Arifin’ (pg.168-169):

My respected father said:  One buzurg by means of the tawfiq of Allah isolated himself from worldly distractions and exerted all of his attention towards the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) by focussing on him and reciting salutations on him.  After some days the Uwaisi connection (nisbat) became apparent on him and began to receive spiritual benefit (fayz) from Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) and made himself well known by the name ‘Kamuni’. The reason being that ‘Kamun’ means veil and that Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) by means of the Uwaisi order had lifted all the veils from the hidden secrets.

He said:  I also had the honour of meeting and befriending this buzurg.  One day I heard from him that: I see Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) in solitude, on the earth, sitting and standing, speaking and walking, eating and drinking, in short in every state I see them.  No blessed state of Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) is hidden from me, and this a special blessing from God (Glorified and Exalted is He) upon this lowly one.

I said that: Due to your immense love Hazrats (Allah bless him and give him peace) noble image is embedded in your imaginative faculty and you have not been blessed with Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) real vision.

Hearing this he said: Bring a proof for this so that I maybe able to confirm this.

I replied:  Ask Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) regarding such and such verse’s meaning, or the story of Badr and Uhud, if you receive such an answer which according to the scholars is certain and verified then it will have to be accepted that you have a real vision.  But if nothing is learnt or other than the actual becomes apparent then understand that the imaginal form of Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) is existing in your mind.

This buzurg then read some verses and ahadith and in accordance with his own imagination began to ask Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) again and again, but received no answer.

I said: The reality has become clear that due to intense love in your minds thought Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) imaginal form persists, not a real vision.  From Hazrats companion another buzurg also experienced this state so he also told him the same.

The needy one (Shah Waliullah) presents at this point a verification (tahqiq) which is that sometimes such people of presence develop a complete connection with the illuminated soul of Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace).  In such a state  the distinction between the states of dreaming and wakefulness is lifted, and these people other than the time of looking can see in every particle of existence the Muhammadan image.  If this state lasts all through life then it will be called a real vision (ruyah haqiqiyah) and there will be no difference between the state of receiving good news from Prophets and the righteous in a dream and the Sufi’s in this state.

In the above mentioned incident the mentioned person not being unable to request the meanings of verses and hadith from Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) could be due to a number of reasons such as that this Buzurg’s nisbat was not of the level that he explain knowledge and secrets directly from Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace).  Or that the person of connection (nisbat) is not fully developed, or that the person of nisbat developed a connection to Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace) in a few specific  matters, and not developing a connection with the intention to obtain hidden knowledge from  Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace).

The needy one (Shah Waliullah) thinks that the above mentioned buzurg person of nisbat’s claim of connection was rejected by my respected father due not to the impossibility of a real vision occurring but rather due to other reasons.

Some Adab of Dhikr

dhikr

Salam.  Please find some Adab of dhikr taken from the ‘Mawsuah’ (21/242).  As always any corrections are welcome from fiqh experts.

Adab of Dhikr

Rememberance of Allah (Most High) has certain adab which have been mentioned by the scholars as being of benefit.

Seeking Help from Allah (Most High) With Dhikr

The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) encouraged Muadh to say: “O Allah, help me wth your dhikr and worshipping you well” [Reported by Ahmad (5/437) with a similar wording, al-Hakim (3/273-274) who graded it as Sahih and al-Dhahabi agreed]

That The One Making Dhikr Being Ritually Pure

The evidence of this is from the hadith of al-Muhajir bin Qunfudh who said: “I saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) relieving himself, I greeted him but he did not reply until he had performed wudu and then excused himself to me saying: I disliked to make dhikr of Allah except in a state of purity…”

Ibn Allan said: It is taken from the hadith that it is superior that adhkar are not recited except in the most perfect of states, such as purity from both states of ritual impurity, and the purity of the mouth from filth. [Al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah (1/396)]

However it is not a condition because it is established that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace):  Would make rememberance of Allah in all of his states. [Muslim (1/282)]

And that: When He would exit from the place of relieving oneself he would say: “Ghufranak”. [Al-Tirmidhi (1/12) and said it was a Hasan Gharib Hadith.

This dhikr (whilst not being in a ritual impurity) is agreed upon as being permissible with the heart and tongue for the one in a state of minor and major ritual impurity, a woman menstruating and with post natal bleeding. [Al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah (1/127)]

The view of the Hanafi scholars as in ‘Al-Hidayah’ and its commentaries is that it is desirable for the one making dhikr to be in a state of wudu. From these cases is the Adhan and Iqamah, for if he made Adhan without wudu it is permissible without it being disliked according to the Zahir al-Riwayah as is the case with all forms of dhikr.

If a person was to pronounce the Iqamah without wudu it is permissible along with it being disliked due to that which it entails from a seperation between the Iqamah and the prayer due to the person being busied with the actions of wudu, and the Iqamah is legislated to be directly before the prayer without any gap. [Al-Hidayah and Fath al-Qadir (1/176, 414)

What is understood from the statement of the Hanafi’s is that the the desirability of the being in a state of ritual purity is in specific situations situations such as the Friday sermon (khutbah) and the Adhan. [Fath al-Qadir (1/414)]

In Dur al-Mukhtar it is mentioned: Wudu for general dhikr is desirable, even for a junub (person in major ritual impurity). Leaving it is against the optimum (khilaf al-awla) [Dur al-Mukhtar and Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (1/117, 195)]

Using A Toothstick

Al-Shawkani said: Cleaning of the mouth at the time of dhikr with the toothstick (siwak) is a good etiquette, because it is the place where the dhikr of the prayer will be. It is authentically reported: “That he (Allah bless him and give him peace) when he was greeted by one of his companions made tayammum from a wall and then replied to him'” This is just for replying to the greeting so the rememberance of Allah the Glorified is more deserving. [Sharh Hisn al-Hasin (p.32) Nuzul al-Abrar (p.29) The hadith cited be found with a similar wording in al-Bukhari (al-Fath 1/444)].

Anfas al-Arifin: Meeting a Majdhub

Salam.  I came across the following recently which I thought was of interest.  Shah Waliullah al-Dihlawi says regarding his father in ‘Anfas al-Arifin’:

My respected father said:  One night I was passing through Akbarabad when an ascetic with the appearance of a Majdhub came in front of me and began to mention the names of the Majdhubs of the age.  He said in Shaam there is such and such Majdhub, in Rum is such and such Majdhub etc.  In my heart occured that if only he would mention the names of the Majdhubs in India.

At the occurence of this thought in my heart he began to count the names of the Majdhubs in India.  During this he said such and such Majdhub is very good (the writer thinks that this view was regarding the Majdhub called ‘Behka’) and such and such and such person is a partial Majdhub.  The writer thinks that he said this in regards to the majdhub called ‘pira’.

During this the thought occured in my heart that if only if he would mention something regarding the spiritual travellers (salikon) in India.  Immediately becoming aware of this thought he said:  In Akbarabad there is no successor to Khalifah Abul Qasim.  Then turning towards me he said:  Why are you standing here? go away!  And I left that place.

Wudu And Touching Books Of Knowledge

Salam.  Some brief notes, once again those with expertise in fiqh please send in any corrections.  Related to this, one of the scholars of the past during his study during the course of the night made wudu a dozen or so times because of stomach problems!  All of this due to his Adab with the books of knowledge despite his knowing it was not necessary to do so.

Perhaps this was one of the reasons for their tawfiq and success as opposed to our state.  I think the incident is in Shaykh Abu Ghuddah’s ‘Safahat min Sabr al-Ulama’.  Those who may have across this incident please kindly share. Ws

A Person Not in Wudu Touching Islamic Works

With regards to the books of Tafsir the generality of the Hanafi scholars are of the view of it being unlawful to touch the actual script of the Noble Quran in a book of Tafsir. The author of al-Siraj said quoting from al-Idah: It is not permitted to the touch the place of the Quranic script in it. As for other than it from the tafsir and the other books of sacred law the verification is that there are 3 opinions in regards to it: The opinion that it is disliked, that it is not (disliked) and the third: Disliked for tafsir but not others.

Ibn Abidin said: The third opinion is more apparent (azhar) and precautionary due to evident difference (between them), for the Quran in works of Tafsir is more than in others. [Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (1/119)]

Touching Books of Fiqh, Hadith and Works Containing Verses of Quran by A Person Not in Wudu

Some of the Hanafi’s permitted, and this was declared correct by Abu Hanifah the one not in wudu to touch and carry the books described above, even if they contain verses of the Quran. The evidence for this view is that: The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) wrote a letter to Herqal containin a verse. [Al-Bukhari (al-Fath 1/32). And also because the term of copy of the Quran (Mushaf) is not used for these works, and thus the sanctity of them is not established to the same level as that of the Quran.

Some of the Hanafi’s, amongst them being Imams Abu Yusuf and Muhammad were of the view that it is disliked to touch the books of hadith, fiqh for the one not in a state of purity because these works are not free of verses of the Quran. But it has been previously mentioned that Ibn Abidin gave preference to the view of it being disliked for the books of Tafsir only. [Badai a-Sanai (1/33-34) Dur al-Mukhtar with Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (1/118)]

Faidah: Previously Revealed Divine Books

There is some difference of opinion amongst the Hanafi’s in regards to this. In the Hashiyah of Ibn Abidin it is mentioned: Shaykh Ismaeel said: In al-Mubtaghi: It is not permitted to touch the Torah, Injil and al-Zabur. Some of the Hanafi jurists reasoned this as in the sharing of all of the divinely revealed books in the necessity of being honoured, but he said: yes, it should be specified to that which has not been altered.

Another view of the Hanafi’s is that it is permitted to touch these books without wudu. In Dur al-Mukhtar it is mentioned: The apparent view (al-Zahir) is that it is permitted to touch. He said in al-Nahr: His (Most High’s) words: ‘It is not touched except by the purified’ is based on the sentence being a description (sifah) of the Quran and necessitates the specifying of prohibition to it (alone). [Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (1/119)]

Source: Mawsuah (34/182)

How To Stack Your Books

stacked books

Salam. I found this following brief point of interest:

Ever been at a loss as to how to stack up your books? Well some of the Hanafi scholars mentioned something in regards to this matter. They said as in the ‘Dur al-Mukhtar’ and ‘Hashiyah Ibn Abidin’ on it (1/119):

First at the bottom should be placed the books of Arabic grammar and language, then the books relating to dream interpretation such as the works of Ibn Sirin and In Shahin. This is because of their virtue due to being an interpretation of dreams which are 1/46th of Prophethood.

Then the books of theology (kalam) followed by the books of fiqh, because the majority of  works of fiqh’s evidences are from the Quran and Sunnah and therefore many verses of the Quran and Hadith will be mentioned in them. This is different to the case of the books of theology (Ilm al-Kalam) as evidences from the Quran and Sunnah are mainly to be found the ‘al-Samiyat’ chapter of theology works.

Then on top would be the books of narrations and sermons (Akhbar wal-Mawaiz), then the books of Explanation of the Quran (Tafsir). And finally at the top of all of them would be a copy of the Quran (Mushaf).

Source: Al-Mawsuah (34/184)

Shining Moons And Radiant Suns

mohamed_moon

Salam.  I found the following wonderful account written by the Muhaddith of the two Holy sanctuaries:  Shaykh Muhammad bin Alawi al-Maliki  in a correspondence with a member of the al-Kattani family.  I wanted to share the following extracts with readers who hopefully will find it of benefit.

Elsewhere on this blog there are  details of the scholars mentioned in this post such as Shaykhs: Muntasir al-Kattani, Umar bin Hamdan and al-Fadani for those who may wish to acquiant themselves with them.  By the grace of Allah (Most High) I along with many others was able to share in the hadith of Rahmah mentioned below when I met Sayyid Maliki a few months before his passing away.  May Allah (Most High) have mercy on him, and all the scholars mentioned in this post, and enable us to be linked to them in this world and the next.

The Muhaddith of the two Holy Sanctuaries (Haramain), and the Imam of Ahl al-Sunnah in his time said:

As for Sayyid Muhammad al-Muntasir, as you know he was resident in the Haramain al-Sharafain, and there was between him and my master, my father, and the scholars of Makka al-Mukarramah and Madinah al-Munawwarah of that time a strong and firm connection/relationship. There was mutual visiting and friendship, exchanging of ijazah’s, immense respect and great trust. Their madhab was one, their approach (mashrab) was one and their belief was one.

I would see them when they were in the gatherings of the Mawlid al-Sharif or gatherings of knowledge in an event which some of the lovers from Makka al- Mukarammah or Madinah al-Munawwarah invited them to. I would see them seated as if they were like full moons shining and radiant suns, as if they are infront of my eyes at this moment. Here is Sayyid al-Muntasir, next to him is Shaykh Muhammad Nur Sayf, after him is Sayyid Ishaq Azur, after him is Shaykh Yasin al-Fadani and the rest of the people of knowledge…

These gatherings-unfortunately-have not remained except for their rememberance, if they were recorded they would have been a great historical heritage. Each one of them would respect the other, honour him and respect him without paying attention to their age.

A Procession To Elevation

From the memories I wish to record is that I was with Sayyid Alawi sitting in the Rawdah al-Nabawiyyah when Sayyid Muhammad al-Muntasir came to the Rawdah.

My father stood up for him and embraced him and shook his hand. Then my master Muntasir said to my master, my father: We have a immense gift and great treasure which has come to Madinah at this time, and by him an elevated chain of narration which people travel to him for will be completed for us: It is Sayyid Abd al-Kabir al-Saqli who is the Shaykh of the Shaykh of Umar Hamdan!

My father stood and we stood with him and headed towards Shaykh Hasan al-Mashat who was at the far end of the Rawdah. We informed him of the news and he became extremely happy and stood with us and we all walked in a great procession with Sayyid Muntasir al-Kattani and came to the door/entrance (bab) of Sayyidah al-Fatimah and found Shaykh al-Saqli there.

They sat around him and sought from him that he narrate to them first the hadith of mercy the ‘Musalsal bil-Awwaliyyah’. He narrated it to them, they then sought an ijazah from him and he granted them ijazah, shook hands with them and interlaced fingers with them.

I by the praise of Allah-despite my young age at that time was like a sparrow which had entered amongst eagles-entered with them in that ijazah, and connected with this great Shaykh, and with it I -and the bounty is from Allah-equalled in narrating (the level of) not my Shaykhs, but the Shaykh of my Shaykhs: Shaykh Umar bin Hamdan and other than him in his level of those who narrate from Shaykh al-Saqli.