Fiqh of Eid From Sharh al-Wiqayah and Umdah al-Riayah

Salam

Readers of this blog might recall that we posted an extract of some rulings from the ‘Fatawa al-Hindiyyah’ related to Eid.  I thought I would add to that post with some additonal extracts from Shaykh Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi’s commentary on the ‘Sharh al-Wiqayah’ entitled ‘Umdah al-Riayah’.  The main aim was to present a brief mention of *some* of the evidences in the Hanafi school, and Shaykh al-Luknawi’s work usefully presents the evidences in a succint manner (more on this at another time inshAllah).

In the extract below taken from (2/336 onwards) I have selected some passages from the ‘Sharh al-Wiqayah’ of Imam Sadr al-Shariah (in bold) and after the (-) sign the commentary of Shaykh al-Luknawi is quoted from.  I left out the some discussions from the commentary which might not be of immediate importance.  I pray that perhaps a revision of this hastily prepared article will allow for a greater  service of these texts and commentary.

It is liked on the day of Fitr to eat before the prayer- Meaning dates, three, five, seven, more or less, after they are an odd number.  This is transmitted from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) as in ‘Sahih al-Bukhari’ and others.  If it is not dates then another sweet thing.

Use a toothstick– This is from the general sunnah’s at the time of every wudu, and is desirable at the time of every prayer, and would therefore obviously be desirable and recommended in the two Eids.

Bathes– Due to that which is reported from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) that he would bathe on the two Eids, it was related by Ibn Majah.

Applies perfume- Meaning he uses perfume on his clothing and body.  The encouragement to do so is related in numerous hadith on Jumah from the authors of the Sunan works and others.  And it is known that the day of the two Eids is more important than it.

Wears his best clothes- Due to that that which is reported that: “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) would wear a red cloak on every Eid”.  And in a version “A red cloak which he would wear on the two Eids and Friday”, reported by al-Bayhaqi.

Gives the Fitr- Meaning the Sadaqah al-Fitr, and this is if giving it is compulsory, however the giving of it before going out to the prayer place (Musalla) is recommended.  This is transmitted from Ibn Umar, Allah be pleased with him, who said “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace)  ordered us on the day of Fitr to give it before the people go out to the prayer”. Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

And goes out to the Musalla- It is a place in the outskirts (الصحراء) where the two Eid prayers are offered and it is also called al-Jabbanah…however going out to al-Jabbanah is an emphasised Sunnah even if the Jami Masjid is large enough for them.  If they were to pray in the mosques of the city without an excuse their prayers will be valid but they will have left the Sunnah.  This is what is correct as mentioned in ‘al-Zahiriyyah’.

In ‘al-Khulasah’, ‘al-Khaniyah’ it is mentioned: The Sunnah is that the Imam goes out to the prayer place (al-Jabbanah) and delegates another person to pray in the city with the weak…

The basis of this is that the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, would go out to the Musalla and would not offer the Eid prayer in his Masjid despite its virtue, except once due to the reason of rain as was detailed by ibn al-Qayyim ‘Zaad al-Maad’ and al-Qastallani in ‘Mawahib al-Laduniyyah’ and other than them.

The hadith regarding this issue are related in the Sunan works and others.  Disagreement has occurred between the scholars of our time regarding whether going out to the Musalla is an emphasized sunnah or desirable?  Most of them gave the legal verdict that it was an emphasized sunnah, and this is the just view in conformity with the foundational and subsidiary works and in accordance with the majority view.   And it is said that it is desirable which is an invalid opinion which has no evidence, and some have gone to extremes and said it is compulsory, and it is a rejected opinion which is given no credence, and the detail is in another place.

Without pronouncing the takbir loudly en route, he negated pronouncing takbir loudly such that if he pronounced takbir without being loud it is good- How can it not be so when al-Darqutni has reported that: “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) would pronounce the takbir in the Fitr from when he would come out of his house until he reached the Musalla”

He does not offer optional prayers-…The basis for this is that He (Allah bless him and give him peace) would offer the Eid prayer and would not pray before or after it, this is reported by the six Imams and others.  The majority take from this that to offer optional (nafl) before it is disliked, and He (Allah bless him and give him peace) did not do it despite his desire for the prayer.  If it was permissible he would have offered it at least once.  However Hafiz Ibn Hajr and others discussed this that the hadith does not indicate it being disliked but rather that the Eid does not have a Sunnah before or after it.

Before the Eid prayer- As for after it he does not offer optional prayers in the Musalla, there is no harm in it after his returning back home, rather it is good based on what is reported by Ibn Majah that: “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) when he would return to his home would offer two units”.

Its conditions are the conditions of Jumah for it to be compulsory and to be offered- Meaning that which is a condition for the Jumah prayer being compulsory is also a condition for the two Eid prayers being compulsory.  It is not compulsory upon the traveller, ill person, woman, child, insane and one with chronic excuse…

Except for the Sermon- For it is not a condition for the validity of the Eid prayer.  If he was not to deliver a sermon he would be sinful but the Eid prayer would not be invalidated, as opposed to the Jumah prayer which is not valid without a sermon.  This is the difference between the two sermons…

The Imam prays two units with them, he make takbir for the Ihram,- The summary of this method is that the takbir is pronounced first to start the prayer just like all of the prayers, then the thana which is reported is recited which is:

سبحانك اللهم و بحمدك و تبالك اسمك و تعالى جدك و لا اله غيرك

Then the takbir is pronounced thrice and these are the additional takbirs.  Then the Fatihah and chapter is recited, any chapter he wishes, and then pronounces takbir for bowing.  This is in the first unit, the takbirs in it are five including the takbirs of ihram and bowing.

In the second the Fatihah and Chapter is recited first, the three additional takbirs are pronounced, then the takbir for bowing.  This method is transmitted from Abdullah bin Masud, Hudhayfah, Abu Musa al-Ashari.  It was related by Abd al-Razzaq and Ibn Abi Shaybah in their Musannaf’s, Muhammad bin al-Hasan in Kitab al-Athar and others…

Abu Dawud relates in his ‘Sunan’ that: “Saeed bin al-Aas (Allah be pleased with him) questioned Abu Musa al-Ashari and Hudhayfah (Allah be pleased with him):  How did the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) pronounce Takbir in the two Eids? He replied: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) would would recite four Takbirs in the al-Adha and al-Fitr…” and in its chain there is a slight weakness.

And al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and others relate that: “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) would pronounce Takbir in the two Eids in the first (unit) seven before reciting, and in the other five before recitation”  and it is a transmission from Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them all).  There is leeway in the matter due to differences of the companions statements and actions, and they are stars which ever them you follow you will be guided.

Recites the thana, then pronounces takbir thrice, recites the Fatihah and Chapter, then bows uttering the takbir.  In the second he starts with the recitation, then pronounces takbir three times, and another for bowing and raises his hands in the additional [takbirs]- As he would raise his hands in the Ihram, and release his hands between the additional takbirs, and place after the third takbir from it in the first unit, and there is no placement in the second unit after it, as in Majalis al-Abrar.

He delivers after it two sermons- Like the two sermons of Jumah with a brief sitting in between them, and there is no Adhan nor Iqamah. teaching in it the rulings of fitrah

Al-Adha- Meaning Eid al-Adha which is the tenth of Dhul Hijjah is like Eid al-Fitr in the previous rulings except that between them is a difference in some of them…

Is like the Fitr in terms of rulings, however it is desirable to refrain-Meaning from eating, and it is reported from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) in Sunan Ibn Majah and Jami al-Tirmidhi and others.

Until he prays it-Meaning the Eid prayer, he sacrifices his Udhiyah and eats from it, this is with regards to a city dweller.  As for a village dweller he eats from the morning because the Udhiyah are sacrificed in villages from the morning as mentioned in Ghayah al-Bayan.

Is not disliked to eat before it which is the chosen view.  He recites the takbirs loudly-This is transmitted from Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) and in Eid al-Fitr it is also established that he pronounced loudly, reported by al-Darqutni and al-Bayhaqi.

En route and teaches in the sermon the Takbir of Tashriq and al-Udhiyah.

The Takbirs of Tashriq are compulsory- He said in طFath al-Qadirط: They have differed regarding it being compulsory or recommended.  The majority are of the view that it is compulsory, and the proof for its being recommended is His (Allah bless him and give him peace) habitual performance of it.

Which are his saying:

اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ ، لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَاَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ

-These words are related from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) that he would pronounce them after the morning of Arafah till the Asr of the days of Tashriq as was reported by Ibn Abi Dunya.

Likewise it is reported from Umar (Allah be pleased with him) in Ibn Abi Shaibah and Ibn Abi Dunya, from Ibn Masud (Allah be pleased with him) also from them both.  From Ali, Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) and others.  And we have detailed all of this in ‘Sibahah al-Fikr fi al-Jahr bil-Dhikr’.

From the Fajr of Arafah after every obligatory prayer offered in a congregation which is desirable, upon a resident in a city, and female praying behind a man,-Meaning a woman praying behind a man…however she does not recite loudly but says it silently.

A traveller praying behind a resident till the Asr of Eid.  And they both said till the Asr of the last days of Tashriq, and this is acted upon.

Hows the weather?

Salam

When reading the passage below I was reminded of the popularity of discussions surrounding the weather which seems to be common in many cultures and countries, and from the passage below it seems it was so in the past as well.

It also reminded me of one scholar I met and was introduced to for the first time.  I greeted him and proceeded to the normal pleasantries such as asking how he was, my enquiry about the state of his health was met with silence.  Thinking perhaps he had not heard my question I repeated it again and finally received a response after a pause.  What became apparent to me was that this person was analysing everything he said out of his scrupulousness to avoid uttering anything which might be a cause of regret on the day when we will be taken to account.  May we have the tawfiq to learn from the example of this scholar.

Imam al-Dhahabi said in his biography of Shaykh al-Islam Muafa bin Imran [Siyar 9/80-86]:

A man once said:  It is very cold today
Muafa turned to him and said: Have you warmed up now?! If you were to remain silent it would be better for you

Imam al-Dhahabi commented on this saying:

A statement such as this is permissible, but they would dislike unnecessary talk.  The scholars have differed over permissible talk, do the two angels record it or do they not record except the desirable (mustahab) which contains reward, and the offensive for which there are consequences?  The correct view is that all of them are recorded due to the generality of the text in His (Most High’s) words: ‘He does not utter any word except that with him is an observer prepared (to record)’.
The two angels are not cognizant of intentions and sincerity, rather they record that which is articulated, as for the inner thoughts which lead to articulation then Allah is aware of them.

Visiting A Grave to Treat Hardness of The Heart

Imam al-Dhahabi mentioned in the biographical entry of Safwan bin Sulaim in his Siyar (5/364-369):

Muhammad bin Salih al-Tammar said:  Safwan bin Sulaim would visit Baqi on some days and pass by me.  One day I followed him and said:  I will look to see what he does.  He covered his head and sat by a grave, he continued to weep till I felt sorry for him and I thought it was the grave of one of his family.  He passed by me another time and I followed him, and he sat next to another grave and did the same.

I mentioned this to Muhammad bin al-Munkadir and said:  ‘I thought it was the grave of some of his family’.

Muhammad said:  ‘All of them are his family and brethren, he is a man whose heart is moved by the remembrance of the dead each time it feels hardness’.

Safwan died in the year 132 and lived for 72 years.

Loud Laughter Invalidating Wudu and Hanafi Evidences

Salam

I thought I would post an extract from the ‘Umdah al-Riayah’ for the benefit of readers.

In the ‘Sharh al-Wiqayah’ it is written:

[And the loud laughter of a person praying, mature, bowing and prostrating] such that the wudu of a child is not invalidated by loud laughter.  Its condition is:  That it be in a prayer containing bowing and prostration, such that if he were to laugh aloud in the funeral prayer, or prostration of recitation it does not invalidate wudu.  Rather it only invalidates that which they laughed aloud in.  The conditions which have been mentioned are because the invalidating of wudu by it (loud laughter) is established from the hadith.

Shaykh Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi commented on this in his ‘Umdah al-Riayah’ (1/338):

“It is that which is related by al-Tabarani from Abu Musa al-Ashari (Allah be pleased with him): ‘The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) was praying with the people when a man entered and fell into a hole which was in the masjid, and there were problems with his eyesight.  Many of the people laughed and they were in the prayer, so the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) ordered those who laughed to repeat the wudu and prayer.’  Likewise it was reported by al-Darqutni, Abd al-Razzaq, Abu Dawud in his ‘Marasil’, Ibn Abi Shaibah and others.

The hadith has supporting narrations related by al-Darqutni, Ibn Adiyy and other than them both, as was detailed by al-Zaylai in ‘Takhrij Ahadith al-Hidayah’.  And I have a detailed discussion for and against them, the subsidiary points of the issue and those that are related to it in a treatise which I named ‘Al-Has-hasah bi Naqd al-Wudu bil-Qahqahah’…”

Dr Salah Abul Hajj in his notes at the bottom of the same page referenced the hadith and added some additional comments as follows:

Sunan al-Darqutni (1:167) al-Kamil (3:167) Tarikh Jurjan (1:405) Sunan al-Bayhaqi al-Kabir (2:252) Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq (2:376) Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah (1:341) Marasil Abi Dawud (p.75) Al-Luknawi said after citing the chains of transmission for the hadiths regarding loud laughter in ‘Al-Has-hasah bi-Naqd al-Wudu bil-Qahqahah’:  “These musnad narrations, and mursal reports are clear evidence of the invalidating of wudu by laughing aloud”.  And whoever seeks more detail regarding the hadith narrations regarding the invalidating of wudu by laughing aloud then let him refer to ‘Ilaa al-Sunan’ (1/132-144).

Opposing The Nafs-Burda

واِنْ همـا مَحَّضَـاكَ النُّصحَ فاتَّهِـم

وخالِفِ النفسَ والشيطانَ واعصِهِـمَا

  • And oppose (your) self (nafs) and shaytan and disobey them both.
  • And if both of them give you sincere advice regard it as lies.

Salam

Another brief selection from the commentary of Imam al-Bajuri which caught my attention.  May Allah (Most High) give us all tawfiq to follow its content.  He said in explanation of the verses mentioned above (p.31-32):

His words: “And oppose (your) self (nafs) and shaytan…” Meaning if your self and shaytan order you with a thing, or your self or shaytan forbid you from a thing, then oppose them for they both are your enemy.

His words: “disobey them both” He indicated by it that it is not sufficient to merely oppose them both, because he may oppose them both to that which they both are pleased with, rather it is necessary to disobey them…

The author preceded the mention of the self before the shaytan because it (the self) is more harmful than him, and its tribulation is greater than his tribulation, because it is an enemy in the form of a friend and person is not aware of the plots of a friend, and also it is an enemy from within as opposed to the shaytan, for he is a clear enemy.  And it is said: Escaping from the self is the greatest blessing because it is the greatest veil between a person and Allah (Most High).

One of the Shaykhs was questioned regarding Islam, he replied:  ‘Slaughtering of the self with the sword of opposing it’.

Sahl bin Abdullah said:  ‘Allah has not been worshipped with a thing like the opposing of the self and desire’.

So generally, the opposing of the self is the peak of worship, and the first of the levels of felicity.  Look to the action of shaytan with your father, he swore that he was a sincere advisor to him, and how is he with you when he has sworn to misguide you!

His words: “And if both of them give you sincere advice regard it as lies” Meaning if they both offer you advice…such as they both say to you:  ‘Fulfil this desire so that you may focus towards obedience with an untroubled heart’, or they both say to you:  ‘Be gentle with yourself in worship so that you are able to be consistent in it’, or to increase your worship so as to attain high ranks or its like.  Be suspicious of them by attributing them to treachery because their aim by this is deception and plotting…as nothing emanates from them except deception, thus it is said:  ‘Shaytan opens for a person ninety nine doors of good so as to land them in one door of evil’.

The speciality of this verse and the one after it is:  The one who is persistent in their (recitation) will overcome his self and his shaytan, and will be blessed by Allah by protection from them both Allah (Most High) willing.

Note: Rough draft under revision

واِنْ همـا مَحَّضَـاكَ النُّصحَ فاتَّهِـمِ

وخالِفِ النفسَ والشيطانَ واعصِهِـمَا

And We Exalted For You Your Rememberance وَ رَفَعْنا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ :Tafsir al-Mazhari

sayyidi

Salam

A while back someone mentioned to me the above translation of the verse, what struck me immediately was that it differed with the translations of it which I had long been accustomed to.  I have not had the opportunity to refer to the numerous translations of the Quran which now exist in English, but perhaps experts in Arabic can comment with greater authority, or maybe readers can post the translations of this verse that they have encountered.

Qadi Thanaullah al-Uthmani mentioned in his ‘Tafsir al-Mazhari’  (10/292) explaining this verse:

وَ رَفَعْنا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ And We exalted for you your remembrance- al-Bukhari reports from Abu Saeed al-Khudari from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) that he questioned Jibril regarding this verse “وَ رَفَعْنا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ” Allah (Most High) said:  If I am remembered then you are remembered along with me.

I say:  This verse and hadith necessitates that when the highest assembly (Mala al-Ala) remember Allah (Most High) they also make remembrance of Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace).  It has been mentioned previously that it is written on the leg of the Throne, and it has passed in Surah al-Buruj that which al-Baghawi reports with his chain from Ibn Abbas that he said:  In the heart of the tablet (lawh) is ‘There is no god but Allah alone, His religion is Islam and Muhammad is His servant and Messenger’.

Ata narrating from Ibn Abbas that he said:  ‘He means the Adhan, Iqamah, Tashahhud and sermon on the pulpits, for if a servant worships Allah and affirms Him in everything but does not bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) will not benefit by anything and will be a disbeliever…’

And it is said:  He raised him by taking his covenant from the Prophets and necessitating them to have faith in him and affirm his virtue.