Section: [The Waters by Which Purification Is Correct*]
It is correct/valid to purify
– From ritual impurity (hadath) and filth (khabath)
with absolute water,
– It is that which is usually described as water without any qualification
such as water from the sky
– Meaning that which descends from it such as rain, snow and hail
-water from the
– Such as from a spring, well, river and ocean, these are just examples of waters found on the ground, and are not meant to be taken as a limiting of the types of waters which can be used.
Therefore it is not correct to remove a state of ritual impurity with water from a tree or fruit, even it appears by itself without being squeezed according to the more apparent view, as its appearing by itself has no impact upon its being conditioned. As water from a tree or fruit is conditioned by not being normally described as water, as opposed to the other types of water mentioned above which when seen are described as being water without necessarily having to add any other condition.
Subsidiary ruling: It is correct to attain purity with water which can become salt.
even if it changes
– Meaning the absolute water
due to being stagnant.
-Meaning because of it. Being stagnant is to stay still and not flow, it is conditioned as such because if a person was to know that the water changed due to some filth then purification with it is not correct. And the basis with doubt is purity.
– Meaning it is not correct to purify from ritual impurity
with water whose nature
– Its nature is liquidity, flowing, quenching/irrigating and causing to grow
has changed by cooking,
– Such as water used to cook any items in such as chickpeas and not intended to increase the cleansing quality of the water. For in the case when something is cooked with the water to increase its cleansing properties such as Ushnan and its like, then purification with it is correct as long as the water remains a liquid.
or is admixed
– Meaning the absolute water
with something pure which dominates it,
– Meaning the water, because the ruling is for that which is dominant. Dominance is defined in the case when water is admixed with solids is that the water is no longer a liquid nor flowing, whether this admixed substance be to cleanse such as Ushnan and soap, with or without cooking. Or from other than it such as saffron, fruits and leaves of trees, if they are mixed with water it is correct to purify with it, even if it changes the colour, odour or taste, but with the condition that the name water and its attributes still apply to it, such liquidity, flowing and quenching thirst.
If the admixed liquid differs with the water in one attribute, then the consideration will be whether there is dominance of the attributes which differ. An example of this is milk, it differs from water in that its colour and taste is different, if the colour or taste of the milk dominates the waters colour or smell then wudu will not be valid with this mixed water, however if this does not occur then it will be valid. Likewise liquid from a watermelon only differs with water in terms of its taste, dominance will be considered by the taste becoming apparent.
– Meaning one of its three attributes
due to an impurity.
-Whether a small or large amount, whether flowing or stagnant
– Is purification valid/correct
with a small amount of stagnant waterin which filth has fallen,
– Likewise if the person is reasonably sure that some filth has fallen into the water, even if a small amount, such as a drop of urine, however small amounts of excrement are excused especially in wells. The chosen view is that criteria for small and large amount is that the one looking at it not regard it to be a large amount.
– Is it correct to remove a state of ritual impurity
with water used to remove ritual impurity
– For both major and minor ritual impurity, even if without an intention such as the wudu of a person in ritual impurity in order to cool off, likewise a person in ritual impurity washing a body part not washed in wudu, such as the knee etc, the more correct view is that the water is not regarded as used because of this.
– Is used
for an act of obedience,
– Meaning reward, such as renewing the wudu. Other acts of obedience are: washing the hands before eating with the intention of fulfilling the sunnah.
The scholars have differed over when water is regarded as becoming ‘used’. Some of them mentioned that it becomes ‘used’ by its mere separating from the body part/limb being washed, not the actual time it is on the body part itself, and this was the position of the verifying scholars. A large number of the scholars mentioned that water does not become ‘used’ until it flows and settles in a place, this was the chosen position of al-Nasafi
it is pure
– In of itself
but not purifying.
– For one in the state of ritual impurity, because it is not absolute water. It is permissible to benefit from it and use it for other things.
– The more correct view is that which people regard as flowing
and Stagnant water which reaches ten by ten cubits,
– Meaning all o
f its four sides are ten cubits in length and the surface area of the water be 100 cubits, this is if the pool of water is square shaped. The fatwa position regarding its depth is that the when water is scooped from it the bottom of the pool does not become visible. Flowing water and that which reaches ten by ten cubits
does not become filthy
– By filth falling in it
except by an trace (athar) becoming apparent,
– Meaning of an impurity in it
and they are taste, colour and smell/odour.
– Of an impurity. What has been mentioned regarding ten by ten cubits is the position cited in many of the books of the hanafi madhab, because it is helps to give a guideline for those who are not sure as to what constitutes a large pool of water. Even though the chosen view is the leaving it up to the person faced with the situation. A large pool of water is defined such that one is reasonably sure that an impurity falling in one side of the pool would not spread to the other side, this is reported from Abu Hanifah (Allah have mercy on him) as the Zahir al-Riwayah. The author cited this position in his other fiqh work entitled ‘Jawahir al-Masail’ mentioning in its commentary that which supports this position as cited by the author of al-Bahr.
Note: All liquids in terms of when considering them to be a small or large amount are akin to water, as mentioned in al-Bahr.
 Meaning because of cooking, as when water used for cooking it no longer remains absolute water and term water would not be normally and unrestrictedly applied to it.
 It is a plant which is used to clean clothes and the body, it has a similar effect to that of soap.
 Because the ruling is based on that which is dominant as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) as reported in al-Nasai : ‘Bathed on the day of al-Fath from a container containing a trace of dough’, and it is evident that there will be some change taking place in the water due to the presence of the dough.
And al-Bukhari, Muslim and others report that: ‘While a man was riding (his Mount) in ‘Arafat, he fell down from it (his Mount) and broke his neck (and died). The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said, “Wash him with water and Sidr and shroud him in two pieces of cloth, and neither perfume him, nor cover his head, for he will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection saying, ‘Labbaik,’ (i.e. like a pilgrim).’ A deceased person is not washed with that which is not permissible for a living person to purify with.
 The three attributes of water are the absence of taste, colour and smell.
 Meaning even if it does not change any of its attributes. Imam Malik however regards the changing of the attributes of the water as being the cause for it not being fit for use, whether it be a small or large amount. This is due to His (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) saying: ‘Water is pure except if its odour, taste or colour change due to an impurity occurring in it’, it was reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan (1/260).
And His (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) saying: ‘Water is pure and is nothing makes it impure’ which was reported by Abu Dawud (1/54-55).
The hanafi scholars did not hold this view because the first hadith mentioned is not strong as was mentioned al-Bayhaqi, and the second hadith is not taken in its absolute/general sense due to His (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) saying: ‘None of you should urinate in stagnant water nor bathe in it from janabah’ in other versions the wording are: ‘then bathe from it’ and ‘then bathe in it’ as mentioned in the Sahih’s. The hanafi scholars argued that if the urinating in water would not render the water unusable then there would be no benefit in the prohibition. See Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/87).
 Imam Malik (Allah have mercy upon him) was of the view that it is permissible to purify with used water because it is pure and has come in contact with a pure area, and therefore remains upon its pure state, such as if the water had been used to wash an already clean garment.
 See Kanz al-Daqaiq (1/95) along with its commentary al-Bahr al-Raiq.
The author of Kanz al-Daqaiq is: Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Mahmud al-Nasafi, al-Hanafi (Hafidh al-Din, Abul Barakat). He was a jurist (Faqih), Usuli, Mufassir and theologian. He passed away in the year 710 [AH] in the place ‘Idhaj’. From his authored works are:
-Umdah al-Aqaid on theology and its commentary called al-Itimad
-Madarik al-Tanzil wa Haqaiq al-Tawil in Tafsir
-Manar al-Anwar in Usul al-Fiqh
-Al-Kafi fi Sharh al-Wafi and Kanz al-Daqaiq, both of them on hanafi fiqh.
Refer to Mujam al-Muallifin (6/32) and Kashf al-Zanun (2/1515).
 Jawahir al-Masail: A text on hanafi fiqh authored by Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Mulla, he began writing a commentary of it, however he did not complete it as mentioned in his biography. The commentary was completed by his son Sheikh Abdullah who passed away in the year 1309 [AH].
 Referring to al-Bahr al-Raiq Sharh Kanz al-Daqaiq (1/78). It was authored by the Jurist Zayn al-Din bin Ibrahim, better known as Ibn Nujaim al-Misri al-Hanafi. He was a Faqih and Usuli. From his other works are Sharh al-Manar in Usul al-Fiqh and al-Ashbah wa al-Nazair amongst others. He passed away in the year 970 [AH]. See Mujam al-Muallifin (4/192).
The hadith of the Qullatain: The hanafi scholars did not base their rulings on the hadith of the ‘qullatain’ as they regarded it as not being established, as was stated by Ali bin al-Madini (the Sheikh of al-Bukhari). It was graded as weak by a group of scholars, amongst them Hafidh Ibn Abd al-Barr, Qadi Ismaeel bin Ishaq and Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi. Al-Bayhaqi said it was not strong, and it was left by al-Ghazali and al-Ruyani despite their close following of the Shafi school (Allah have mercy on all of them).