Category Archives: Fiqh

Zamzam And Evidences

Salam
Since a young age I was told that when drinking the blessed zamzam water, that I should face the qiblah and stand. Back in 2006 when I was in al-Khobar, the “5 star” Saad Hospital, during Ramadan, kindly placed containers of zamzam outside their hospital mosque for everyone to benefit from. A dear salafi colleague and myself took advantage of this opportunity regularly, however it was not long before I was told politely that my act of standing up went against the authentic hadith. My reply was something along the lines of “ermm, Ill check it up”, and I carried on drinking zamzam water standing and facing the qiblah (Don’t worry they realised I was a lost cause).
Anyways alhumdulilah, as has often been the case, these practises passed down have some kind of basis in the sunnah, so for the two etiquettes mentioned above please find the following evidences:

Facing the Qiblah

Ibn Abi Mulaykah reported: “A man came to Ibn `Abbas. He asked the man, ‘Where are you coming from?’ The man replied: ‘I drank from Zamzam.’ Ibn `Abbas asked him, ‘Did you drink from it as you are supposed to?’ “The man asked: ‘O Ibn `Abbas, how am I supposed to drink it?’ Ibn `Abbas replied: ‘When you drink its water you should face the direction of the Qiblah, remember Allah, drink it in three breaths, drink as much as you can, and praise and thank Allah when you finish drinking.’ The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “A major difference between us and the hypocrites is that they do not drink their fill of the water of Zamzam.”
-Sunan al-Darqutni (2/288) Ibn Majah (2/1017) Al-Busiri said in his Zawaid: Its chain is Sahih

Standing Up

There is a difference of opinion amongst the scholars regarding this issue. A group of the Hanafi scholars such as: al-Haskafi in al-Dur al-Mukhtar (1/129),al-Luknawi in Umdah al-Riayah (1/267) and Ibn Abidin in his Hashiyah (1/129) mention that the strongest position is that one should stand when drinking zamzam.

Their evidence is that which is reported in al-Bukhari (3/492) and Sahih Muslim (3/1601) that: Ibn Abbas (ra) said: I poured zamzam for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give Him peace), and He drank from it whilst standing.

They therefore argue that drinking zamzam whilst standing is the established practice of the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace).

Note: There is a valid difference of opinion on this issue, so if we do see someone drinking zamzam sitting we should understand that they are acting according to the other valid opinion on this issue.

And with Allah is success, We ask Him (the Exalted) to give us the opportunity to drink our fill of Zamzam whilst gazing at His sacred House. Ameen.

Adhkar (Invocations) After the Prayer

Salam, some of us were fortunate enough to read the beginners text on fiqh ‘Tuhfa al-Mubtadi’ authored by one of the Ahsai hanafi scholars. A translation of it has been prepared (May Allah Taala facilitate its publication). During the sessions where we would gain clarification of some elements of the commentary authored by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla, he (Sh. Yahya) suggested that the section on the adhkar after the prayer be added in from his appendix to Sh. Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s ‘Wasilah al-Falah’. I requested Sh. Yahya to select some of the more essential adhkar for us from his compilation and he kindly did so. Apologies for the typsetting below, Arabic/English can be a bit awkward. Note: All adhkar have been referenced by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla and can be found in the footnotes.
The Invocations (Adhkar) and Supplications (Dua) To Be Recited After the Prayer
Compiled by Sheikh Yahya bin Muhammad al-Mulla
[1]

It is desirable to make much invocation and supplication after making the salam from the obligatory and other prayers, Due to His Taala’s words:

‘So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations [al-Sharh:7-8]

The scholars of Tafsir explaining this verse said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate[2]

From that which is reported regarding this is:

Abu Umamah (ra) said that it was said to the Messenger of Allāh (s) : “Which Supplication (Dua) is most likely to be accepted?” He said: “In the last part of the night and after the obligatory prayers[3]

From the invocations (adhkar) and supplications (dua) to be recited after the obligatory prayers is to say:

Three timesأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ

اللهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَ مِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَاذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَ الإِكْرَام[4]

The above can be recited after the obligatory prayers, they may also be recited after the non obligatory prayers along with the following invocations:

لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
اللَّهُمَّ لا مانع لما أعطيتَ ولا مُعطيَ لما منعت، ولا ينفع ذا الجَدِّ منك الجَدُّ[5]
آية الكرسي[6]
الإخلاص
المعوذتين[7]
33 timesسُبْحَانَ الله
33 timesوَ الْحَمِدُ للهِ
33 timesاللهَ اَكْبَر
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ[8]

And then make dua (supplicate) with the following:
اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الجبن وأعوذ بك أن أُرَدَّ إلى أرذل العمر، وأعوذ بك من فتنة الدنيا وأعوذ بك من عذاب القبر[9]
[1] Taken from Sheikh Yahya’s appendix to Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s selection of invocations for the morning and evening entitled ‘Wasilah al-Falah’.
[2] Reported by Abd bin Humaid, Ibn al-Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Mardawayh, from a number of routes, from Ibn Abbas (ra) regarding the His Taala’s words: “So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations”, He said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate to your Lord, and ask your need. It is reported by Ibn Abi Dunya from Abdullah bin Masud, it is reported al-Faryabi, Abd bin Humaid, In Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim from Mujahid. See al-Dur al-Manthur of al-Suyuti (6/364-365).
[3] Reported by al-Tirmidhi (3494) who said the hadith was Hasan Gharib.
[4] Thawban (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah after finishing his prayer would ask for forgiveness thrice and say: اللهم أنت السلام … الخ
Al-Walid said: I said to Al-Awzai “How was the asking for forgiveness?” He said:
استغفر الله، استغفر الله، استغفر الله
Reported by Muslim (591), Abu Dawud (1513), al-Tirmidhi (300), al-Nasai in al-Mujtaba (3/68), Ibn Majah (928)
[5] Warrad the Mawla of al-Mughirah bin Subah said: Mughirah wrote to Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan (ra): The Messenger of Allah (s) would say after the prayer when he had said the salam: لا إله إلا الله وحده … الخ
Reported by al-Bukhari (844), Muslim (593), Abu Dawud (1505), al-Nasai (3/70), in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah (129).
[6] Abu Umamah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) said: ‘Whoever recites Ayah al-Kursi after every obligatory prayer, will not be prevented from entering paradise except by death’. Reported by al-Nasai (9928) in al-Kubra
[7] Uqbah bin Amir said: The Messenger of Allah (s) ordered me to recite the muawadhatayn after every prayer. Abu Dawud’s version mentions Muawadhat. Therefore {قل هو الله أحد}
, {قل أعوذ برب الفلق} and {قل أعوذ برب الناس} should be recited. Reported by Abu Dawud (1532), al-Tirmidhi (2905), al-Nasai (3/68).
[8] Abu Hurraira (ra) said that the Prophet of Allāh (s) said: “Whoever glorifies Allāh thirty three times after every Salāh, and praises Allāh thirty three times and magnifies Allāh thirty three times and says to complete the hundred There is no god but Allāh. He is alone and has no partner. To Him belongs sovereignty and to Him belongs all praise and He has power over all things,” his sins will be forgiven even if they are like the foam of the sea. Reported by Muslim (595), Abu Dawud (1504), al-Nasai (9970)
[9] Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) would seek protection with these
words: اللهم إني أعُوذُ بك من الجُب

Thoughts on the Tarawih

Salam

With Ramadan fast approaching, and the duration of the fasts once again increasing in length, we need to explore some issues regarding our practices within this holy month. Tarawih can because of its length be quite tough for a lot of us, coupled with the fact that unfortunately in a number of pakistani masjids the poor hafiz recites so fast disregarding all rules of tajwid that infact we have ‘ritualised’ this act of worship.

I found the following which may be of use to us hanafis:

With regards to the tarawih prayer, from the level 2 text taught currently in al-Ahsa by the hanafis: Minhaj al-Raghib Sharh Ithaf al-Talib p181 authored by Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Mulla (d.1270 AH):

It is a sunnah to complete the Quran once In it meaning the tarawih, there is a difference (of opinion) regarding whether the complete recital of the Quran should be left due to the laziness of the people or not? In al-Ikhtiyar it is mentioned that in our time an amount should be recited which will not be burdensome upon them.”

I asked Sh. Yahya al-Mulla about this, he mentioned that in tarawih he has lead the prayer and read the whole Quran only twice, he currently in tarawih recites from surah al-Duha onward each night for tarawih. Basically there is leeway in the madhab for this, it should be noted that the author of al-Ikhtiyar died in the year 683 AH!

Eid Prayer by Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani

A while back many moons ago some people in our town raised the issue of the evidences for the hanafi method of offering the eid prayer, and questioned its reliability resulting in some confusion in the minds of some youngsters. The very useful lecture notes to the hadith book Jami al-Tirmidhi came in very handy, I purchased the first 3 volumes a while back and found the lecture notes of Mufti Taqi (as recorded by his student) very useful and informative. The 3 volumes of the first release (subsequent volumes have since been released, however I do not possess a copy of these) are helpfully annotated in Arabic with cross referencing by the Sheikh’s student who has done an excellent job, may Allah (Most High) reward him. Please find the section dealing with the number of takbirs in the eid prayer below.

The following extract can be found on (2/314) onwards of Dars al-Tirmidhi, only the evidences for the hanafi’s have been translated, and the Sheikh’s replies to the evidences of the other madhabs have not been included, some slight abridgements have been made.***

The Evidence of the Hanafi’s[1]

The hanafi’s first proof is from the narration of Makhul in Sunan Abu Dawud[2] that:

Abu Aishah who was the companion of Abu Hurayrah informed me that Saeed bin al-Aas asked Abu Musa al-Ashari and Hudhayfah bin Yaman regarding how the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) would make takbir in the Adha and Fitr (prayers)? Abu Musa replied he would make takbir four times (similar) to the takbir in the funeral (prayer). Hudhayfah said: you are correct, Abu Musa said: I used to make takbir in this manner when I was amongst them…

Four takbirs are mentioned in this hadith, from these one is the opening takbir (takbir al-tahrimah) and three are extra. This hadith is equivalent to two hadith because it is mentioned that Hadrat Hudhayfah affirmed what Hadrat Abu Musa said.

Objection has been made to this hadith that it revolves around Abd al-Rahman bin Thawban who has been declared weak. The answer to this is that Abd al-Rahman bin Thawban is a narrator with regards to whom there is a difference of opinion, where as some of the scholars of hadith have declared him to be weak[3] the same number of scholars of hadith have declared him trustworthy. Therefore Hadrat Duhaim and Abu Hatim have declared him trustworthy, and Imam Abu Dawud said with regards to him ‘there was good in him (kana fihi salamah) and he was someone whose prayers were answered’ and Ibn Maeen said : ‘there is no harm in him’ also Saleh Jazrah has declared him ‘truthful’ and Ibn Adiyy said: ‘despite his weakness his hadith should be recorded’ therefore his hadith are no less than the level of Hasan

The second objection upon this hadith is that the narrator Abu Aisha is unknown according to Ibn Hazm and Ibn Qattan. The answer to this is that he is the father of Muhammad bin Abi Aishah and Musa bin Abi Aishah. Hafidh Ibn Hajar has said with regards to him in Taqrib[4]: ‘Abu Aishah al-Umawi, their mawla, the companion of Abu Hurayrah, acceptable (maqbul) from the second (level)’ also Hafidh said in Tahdhib[5] regarding him : ‘Makhul and Khalid bin Madan narrate from him’ and it is agreed in the principles of hadith that from which person two narrators narrate, then his being unknown (majhul) no longer applies, therefore the objection is not valid, and the hadith is no less than the level of hasan[6]

Imam Baihaqi [7] has made an objection that this hadith is actually a statement of Hadrat Ibn Masud, the detail of which is that this narration is narrated in Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq[8] from Alqamah and Aswad bin Yazid that:

Ibn Masud was sitting with Hudhayfah and Abu Musa al-Ashari, Saeed ibn al-Aas asked them both regarding the Takbirs in the prayer on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha, each of them said: ask this person, Hudhayfah said to him: ask this person meaning Abdullah Ibn Masud, so he asked him and Ibn Masud said: make takbir four times then recite then make takbir and bow, then stand up for the second rakat and recite, then make takbir four times after the recitation

From this it is known that this narration is a statement of Ibn Masud and is only narrated from him.

Allamah Nimawi has answered this[9] by saying that reconciliation is possible between Abu Musa Ashari’s marfu narration and Hadrat Ibn Masud’s mawquf narration as Hadrat Abu Musa at the beginning was silent out of respect in front of Hadrat Ibn Masud, and when Hadrat Ibn Masud gave the legal ruling with regards to the issue then Hadrat Abu Musa in support of his statement gave his marfu narration. Then for arguments sake if it is accepted that this narration is only mawquf to Ibn Masud even then due to it not falling within the scope of analogy (qiyas) it will have the ruling of a marfu (narration). Then in this narration a group of the companions have agreed with Ibn Masud from which this narration gains extra strength.

The Hanafi’s second proof is the practice of Hadrat Ibn Abbas[10], Hadrat Mughirah bin Shubah[11], Hadrat Ibn Masud [12] may Allah be pleased with them and others [13]

Also a large number of the Tabieens position was in agreement with the hanafi’s [14]

The Hanafi’s third proof is the narration of Ibrahim Nakhai [15] who said:

The Messenger of Allah peace and blessings upon him passed away with the people differeing over the (number) of takbirs in the funeral (prayer)

He then further on said:

The difference continued until Abu Bakr passed away, and when Umar became leader and the difference of the people regarding this (issue) troubled him greatly, so he sent for the men from the companions of the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him and said: you are the companions of the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him, when you differ those after you will differ, and when you agree upon a matter the people will agree upon it…. So they discussed the issue among themselves and agreed to make the takbir in the funeral prayer like the takbir in the adha and fitr (prayers) consisting of four takbirs, and they agreed upon this.

So we learn that in Hadrat Umars time there was agreement (ijma) that there would be 4 takbirs in the eid prayer.

Allamah Ibn Rushd has written in Bidayah al-Mujtahid [16] that no there is no sahih marfu hadith regarding the number of takbirs in the eid prayer, therefore with regards to this he has copied the statement of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal that: ‘there is no sahih hadith reported from the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him regarding the takbir in the eid prayer’. Ibn Rushd states that the different jurists (fuqaha) have based their opinions upon the practice of different companions. Also this difference is one of virtue, there is agreement that the prayer will be valid (with a different number of takbirs). And Allah knows best that which is correct


[1]Dars al-Tirmidhi (2/314) onwards

[2] Sunan Abu Dawud (1/163)

[3] Uthman bin Saeed reports from Ibn Maeen that he said: weak, and Ahmad said: his hadith are reprehensible (manakir), al-Nasai said he: was not strong. Mizan al-Itidal (2/551)

[4] (2/444)

[5] Maarif al-Sunan (4/439)

[6] Hafidh al-Zaylai in Nasb al-Rayah (2/214) after narrating this from Abu Dawud said: Abu Dawud was silent regarding it as was al-Mundhiri in his Mukhtasar, and Ahmad narrated it in his musnad

[7] In his Sunan al-Kubra (3/290)

[8] (3/290) it should be clear that this chain of narration does not contain Abd al-Rahman bin Thawban nor Abu Aishah

[9] al-Taliq al-Hasan ala Athar al-Sunan (p.254)

[10] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/174)

[11] Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq (3/295)

[12] Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq (3/293)

[13] Translators note: ten companions names are mentioned in the footnotes, those interested in the details are referred back to the original

[14] see Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/172)

[15] Sharh Maani al-Athar (1/239)

[16] see Badhl al-Majhud (2/207)