Monthly Archives: May 2009

Anfas al-Arifin: A Little Help From Sadi al-Shirazi


When living in Saudia Arabia I recall one day sitting with some Salafi colleagues.  One of them (who was from the UK) all of a sudden mentioned to the brothers present that “Not many people know this, but Shaykh al-Uthaimeen’s teacher Allamah al-Sadi wrote poetry in Persian”.  I was struck by the oddness of the claim, especially considering the fact as to how would Allamah al-Sadi from Najd have learnt Persian, more less authored poetry in the language which could remain unknown for so long.  Still perplexed a few moments later it dawned on me that perhaps the brother had mistaken Sadi al-Shirazi for his namesake Abd al-Rahman al-Sadi.  I felt it necessary to clarify this point in the gathering, and felt a little bad seeing the expression on the brothers face when I did so.  Anyways regarding this same Sadi al-Shirazi, Shah Waliullah mentions the following incident from his father in the ‘Anfas al-Arifin’  (pg.111-112):

He said that in Akbarabad during studies with Mir Muhammad Zahid once on the way back from a lesson I passed by a long alleyway.  At that time I was reciting with full enjoyment these verses of Sadi Shirazi:

Juz ya dost har che kunni umr zai ast
Juz sirr ishq har che najawani batalat ast
Ittifaq ki baat chu tha dil az naqsh ghair haq
Ilmi ki rah bahaqq nanmayad jahalat ast

It so happened that the fourth verse had slipped from my mind, I exerted my mind to remember but I did not.  The break in this flow  caused a serious perplexment and a lack of enjoyment developed that suddenly a person who looked like a dervish (faqir), with a fine face, long hair appeared and prompted me:

Ilmi ki rah bahaqq nanmayad jahalat ast

I said: May Allah reward you the best of rewards, you have delivered me from so much upset.  I presented some paan to him.

He said to me smiling:  Is this the wage for reminding of a forgotten verse?

I replied no, I am presenting this as a gift and and thanks.

At this he said that: I do not use paan.

I said: Is there some legal prohibition regarding paan or is it some rule of a tariqah?  If it such a matter tell me so that I may also avoid it.

He replied:  It is not such a matter it is just that I do not eat paan.  He then said: I should be going quickly.

I said: I will also go quickly.

He said:  I will go very quickly, at this he lifted his foot and placed it at the end of the alleyway.  I understood that this was the soul of one of the people of Allah which has manifested in a human form.

I called out that atleast inform me of your name so that I may recite fatiha for you!

He replied:  This “faqir” is called Sadi.

Comments on the Hadith of the Seven in the Shade of Allah تعالى From The 'Awjaz al-Masalik'

Salam.  A dear friend of mine from the Reunion Islands on his way to study in Tarim about seven years ago stopped by my house.   When we had to finally bid farewell he told me he needed to give me something and asked me to come outside.  As I stood on the road to see him off he took out a large box containing the 16 volume commentary of the Muwatta called ‘Awjaz al-Masalik’ firmly placed the box it into my arms, and then sped off before I could protest.  May Allah تعالى reward him for his kindness and give him immense blessings in his studies.

As a token of thanks to him I compiled the article below a few years back.  I extracted the commentary from the relevant section of the Awjaz, wherein the author comments in great detail on this hadith of which only a very small portion has been mentioned below.  I have in my notes somewhere more detailed notes from the Awjaz regarding this hadith which I have not posted.  This was compiled some years back so please excuse any shortcomings, (and feel free to submit corrections). Likewise please remember in your prayers the brother from the Reunion Islands currently trying to go back to Tarim to continue his studies, may Allah تعالى give him tawfiq and taysir.

Those in the Shade of Allah تعالى
Extracted from ‘Awjaz al-Masalik’ the commentary on the Muwatta of Imam Malik by  Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyyah al-Kandehlawi

· Text of the Hadith

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: ‘There are seven whom Allah will shade in His shade on the day on which there is no shade except His shade: a just imam, a youth who grows up worshipping Allah, a man whose heart is attached to the mosque when he leaves it until he returns to it, two men who love each other in Allah and meet for that and part for that, a man who remembers Allah when he is alone and his eyes overflow with tears, a man who refuses the approaches of a noble, beautiful woman, saying ‘I fear Allah,’ and a man who gives charity (sadaqah) and conceals it so that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives”.

The Meaning of Shade

{There are seven whom Allah will shade in His shade on the day on which there is no shade except His shade}
It will be on the day of judgement when the sun will be close to all of the creation, until it will be as if it is only be a mile away from them, and people will be in their own sweat/perspiration according to their actions, to the point there will be those who will be overcome by their sweat, this was mentioned in al-Mishkat.

Al-Suyuti said: Ibn Abd al-Barr said: this is the best hadith narrated regarding virtuous actions, it is the most general and most authentic, he said: what is meant by shade in this hadith is the mercy (of Allah)

And it is said what is meant by shade is Allahs generosity and help  and this is the opinion of Isa bin Dinar.

And it is said: (the meaning of shade) is the shade of Allah’s throne, and the evidence for this is in the hadith of Salman reported by Saeed bin Mansur with a Hasan chain that : ‘Seven will be shaded by Allah in the shade of His throne’

· Those in the Shade are Not Limited to Seven
The author of al-Muhalla said: The number is not taken literally (la mafhum lil adad), as it is reported that those with other qualities will also be shaded, Hafidh Ibn Hajar enumerated them up to 28, and Sheikh al-Suyuti up to 70.

I say: he mentioned them in al-Tanwir in a poem form, and he mentioned at the end that: I have collated the established hadith regarding these qualities with their chains of narration in the book named ‘Tamhid al-Farsh fi al-Khisal al-Muidiyah li Dhil al-Arsh’ then I summarized it and called it ‘Bazugh al-Hilal fi al-Khisal al-Mujibah lil Dhilal’

Al-Zabidi said in Sharh al-Ihya: al-Qastallani copied in Sharh al-Bukhari more than 7 from his Shaykh al-Sakhawi, and I will mention them in a summarized form…

· Meaning of a Just Imam
{A Just Imam}
Al-Hafidh said: The best explanation that has been given for just is that he follows the commandments of Allah by placing everything in its correct place without excessiveness or laxity.

And what is meant by it is the possessor of supreme authority, and linked to it is everyone who has authority/charge over anything from the affairs of the muslims and is just.

· The Youth Who Grows Up Worshipping Allah

{A youth who grows up worshipping Allah}

Al-Hafidh said: The youth is specifically mentioned because he/it is the most likely time for the overpowering of the carnal desires, and due to what it contains of the strength of cause to follow desires, as adhering to worship despite this is the strongest proof of predominance of the fear of Allah.

Al-Baji said: What is meant that he has less sins and more good deeds than the one not was not raised in the worship of Allah عز و جل then he worshipped him at the end of his life when he was old

· The Person Whose Heart is Attached to the Masjid
{ a man whose heart is attached to the mosque when he leaves it until he returns to it }
Al-Hafidh said: Its literal is that it is from hanging, as if he is likened to something hanging in the masjid such as a candle for example, indicating to the length of his attachment with his heart, even though his body may be outside from the masjid, this is indicated to in the al-Jawzaqi’s version: As if his heart is hanging in the masjid.

Al-Zarqani said: Ibn Asakir has from the hadith of Abu Hurayrah : ‘Attached to the masjid due to his immense love of it’ and that is because when he is effected by the obedience to Allah and his love overcomes his heart becomes attached to the masjid and does not love/like to be separated from it due to his finding it the spirit of closeness and sweetness of obedience (to Allah)

Two Men Who Love Each Other for The Sake of Allah
{two men who love each other }
Al-Hafidh said:  Each one of them loves the other in reality not just outwardly

{In Allah}
Meaning in seeking his pleasure or because of him, not for a worldly reason

{they meet upon this}

Al-Hafidh said: Meaning they both continue upon the love due to religion and do not break it because of a worldly reason, whether they meet in reality or not, until they are separated by death

{and leave}
Meaning they preserve love when present and absent

· A Man who Remembered Allah When Alone
{ a man who remembers Allah }
Meaning with his heart by means of remembering or with his tongue by means of dhikr as was mentioned in al-Fath

{ when he is alone }
Because he will be at that time furthest from showing off or meaning free from being preoccupied with other than Allah, even if he is in a crowd.

Al-Baji said: the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) specifically mentioned the khali because he is the furthest from showing off and fame, as that which is in the state of solitiude  is purely for the sake of Allah taala and is not blemished by anything

{ and his eyes overflow with tears }

Meaning tears flowed from his eyes.. al-Qurtubi said: The shedding of tears from the eyes is according to the state of the one making dhikr, and according to what is revealed/made apparent to him, for in the state when the attributes of Jalal the weeping will be from the fear of Allah, and in the state when the attributes of  Jamal the weeping will be from longing for him.

· A Man Who Is Invited
{ a man who refuses the approaches of a noble, beautiful woman }
Al­-Hafidh said: She was described with the most perfect characteristics that people are usually attracted to… and what is apparent is that she invited him to commit fornication… One of them said it is possible that she invited him to marry her, but he feared that he would be busied with her and not be able to worship, or feared that he would not be able to fulfil her rights due to his being preoccupied with worship.. and the first opinion is the strongest (azhar).

{ saying I fear Allah }
Al-Hafidh said: What is apparent is that he will say this with his tongue to warn her from committing fornication or to give his reason (for not committing fornication), and it is possible that he said in this in his heart as was stated by Iyad. Al-Qurtubi said: This emanated from him due to his intense fear of Allah Taala, and the strength of his taqwa and haya.

· Hiding Charity

{and a man who gives sadaqa and conceals it so that his left hand does not know what his right hand give }
al-Hafidh said: The meaning of the hadith is the emphasis of concealing charity …
Al-Zabidi said in al-Ittihaf: Ibn Battal said: this hadith is an example given by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) in emphasizing the concealment of charity.. Ibn al-Munir said the meaning was that if he was able to conceal it from himself he would, so how can he not conceal it from others, as concealing from oneself is possible…

Al-Shaykh al-Akbar may Allah sanctify his secret said: Know that concealing charity is a condition for reaching a lofty rank that Allah has made specific for the 7 abdal.  It (charity) can be concealed in different ways, from them is that the one given charity does not know of it, and from the charity who is the one who gave it, and to be gentle in the charity reaching them whichever way it is, and from them is to let him know how to take it and that he is taking it from Allah and not from you so that he does not see any kindness from you upon him for what you have given him and so that he does not exhibit any signs of debasement or poverty in front of you.

· This Hadith Also Applies to Women
Al-Hafidh said: The mention of men in this hadith is not taken literally, rather women are included with them in that which has been mentioned except if what is meant by a just ruler is the greater Imamship, and if not then a woman maybe included as she has a family and can be just amongst them, and she is excluded from the quality of being attached to the masjid because the prayer in her home is more superior than the masjid, and they are included with the men in other than this, even in the case of the man who is invited by a woman as it can be conceived as occurring for example in the case of a woman who is invited by a handsome king but she refused due to her fear of Allah Taala despite her need.

Mawlid And The Scholars of India-2: Shaykh Rehmatullah al-Kairanwi



In addition to what we mentioned previosuly regarding the scholars of India and the Mawlid: please find a rough draft of selections from the taqriz of Mawlana Rehmatullah al-Kairanwi (one of the major scholars linked to the Madrassa al-Sawlatiyyah) to the ‘Anwar al-Satia’ of Mawlana Abd al-Sami al-Rampuri, the student of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki. This translation is still under review so please be aware of this.  I have something from Mawlana Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi aswell which Insha-Allah I hope to post in the near future.


I have listened to this treatise closely from its beginning to the end and I very much liked its unique style. If I was to write something describing it people would it interpret as exaggeration. Therefore refaining from this I will suffice with a prayer that God (Most High) give its author a beautiful and immense reward, and that He break the unwarranted fanaticism of the critics of this treatise, and guide them to the straight path. I also pray that He grant blessings in the knowledge, fayd and health of its author. This is the belief of My noble teachers and myself regarding the Mawlid Sharif from the past, and is currently so…

The belief is that the gathering of Milad be organised with the condition that it be free of unlawful acts such as singing, musical instruments and excessive lights. Rather- based on the authentic narrations- mention is made of the miracles and birth of Hazrat (Allah bless him and give him peace). After this if good food and shirini is distributed,  there is no problem in this.

Rather in this age when from every direction there is the commotion of priests, and in market places the religion of Hazrat (Allah bless him and give peace) is criticised, and from the other direction the Arya people (God guide them) like the priests are causing a greater commotion than them.

These gatherings with those conditions which I have mentioned above are at this time a communal obligation (fard kifayah). I say to Muslim brothers by way of sincere advice to not stop from holding such gatherings, and most certainly to not pay attention to those critics who hold unwarranted views due to their fanaticism.

If in the specifying of the day there is not the belief that no other day other than this is permissible, then there is no problem with this, and its permissibility is established very well (ba khubi).

Since 600 years the standing (qiyam) at the time of the mention of the birth has been declared permissible by the majority of the righteous scholars, scholars of kalam, Sufi’s, scholars and hadith specialists. The author of the treatise has made these matters apparent very well.   I am amazed at these critics who blindly follow/make taqlid of Fakihani Maghribi and lump together the majority of the righteous predecessors, scholars of kalam, hadith specialists and Sufi’s, and label them as misguiding and misguided and do not fear God that included in this are these people’s teacher and spiritual guide such as Hazrat Shah Abd al-Rahim Dehlawi and his son Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, and his son Shah Rafi al-Din Dehlawi and his brother Shah Abd al-Aziz Dehlawi, his grandson Mawlana Muhammad Ishaq Dehlawi (Allah sanctify their secrets) all of them are included in being misguided and misguiding…

Anfas al-Arifin: Urs and Roti

Salam.  Continuing with some points from the very interesting ‘Anfas al-Arifin’ of Sayyidi Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi, the following caught my attention.  Shah Sahib quoting his father says (pg.82-83):

My respected father used to say that:  I saw a khalifah of Khawaja Bairang who despite weakness due to old age had an illuminated face and was a saint of great rank.  He was well known by the name ‘Shaykhi’.  He would celebrate the Urs.  At 6/7 years of age I also attended his Urs a number of times.

The author (Shah Waliullah) says that this saint of great rank’s real name of Shaykh Nimatullah, and he was a descendant of Shaykh al-Islam Khawaja Abdullah al-Ansari.  He was commonly better known as ‘Shaykhi’.  When Shaykh Nimatullah would present himself to Khawaja Bairang he would be extremely kind and generous to him. Hazrat Shaykhi passed away in 1076 Hijri.

After mentioning Khawaja Shaykhi my respected father in a humourous manner made mention of a story. He said: Khawaja was a ‘marde wilayati’.  He would wear a large turban and fine robe.  However in the Urs for tabarruk he would distribute extremely small roti’s.  A witty person said in a joking manner : ‘Miyan Shaykhi your robe is vast and this is your turban, but this is the roti?!’.

Sharh Aqidah al-Awam: That Which Is Possible In Regards To Allah تعالى

Salam, please find the latest draft translation from our beloved Shaykh Muhammad bin Alawi al-Maliki’s commentary on the ‘Aqidah al-Awam’.

That Which Is Possible In Regards To Allah تعالى

The author said:

وَجَائِزٌ بِفَضْلِهِ وَعَدْلِهِ    تَرْكٌ لِكُلِّ مُمْكِنٍ كَفِعْلِهِ

And conceivable with His grace and justice is to leave every possible matter, like doing it


That which is possible in regards to Allah تعالى is the doing of all that is possible or its being left.  Therefore it is compulsory upon every legally responsible person to believe that it is possible for Allah تعالى to create and choose from His creation as He wishes.  Nothing is compulsory in Him because He is the absolute disposer, and no one has any choice with Him, because in His hands are all matters, the good and the bad. Thus He gives and prevents, honours and debases, benefits and harms, forgives and punishes, rewards and takes to account.  Heتعالى said:

And Your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses, no choice have they (in any matter).  [al-Qasas: 68]

And He تعالى said:

Say (O Messenger of Allah ): “O Allâh! Possessor of the kingdom, You give the Kingdom to whom You will, and You take the Kingdom from whom You will, and You endue with honour whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, You are Able to do All things.  You make the night to enter into the day, and You make the Day to enter into the night, You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living. and You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will, without limit.

And He تعالى said:

To Allâh belongs All that is In the heavens and All that is on the earth, and whether You disclose what is In Your ownselves or conceal it, Allâh will call You to account for it. Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. and Allâh is Able to do All things. [al-Baqarah:384]

Anfas al-Arifin: A Journey to Ajmer

Salam.  Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi mentions the following story in his wonderful ‘Anfas al-Arifin’ regarding his father’s miracles.  I have on reasonably good authority an incident similar to this occurring in recent times with Shaykh Mahmud Effendi in Istanbul (may Allah تعالى  protect him and give him health).  Shah Sahib said pg.134:

He said:  Muhammad Fazil wanted to send his son to Ajmer and due to the presence of danger of the route also wanted to go with him.  When he came to bid farewell I said to him:  “Your going is not necessary because he will return safely, yes however two stops (manzil) from Ajmer bandits will attack the caravan and his protection is our responsibility. But explain to him that at this time to move his cart to one side”.

When this time came Hazrat focussed towards there and during his focus discomfort was evident on his body.  Those present all asked so he replied that an arduous journey of some days has tired me.

When that boy returned he informed that there were bandits there, I moved my cart to one side, there the image of Hazrat’s form was present.  The bandits looted the whole caravan but my cart was protected.

Anfas al-Arifin: Relief From Pain


A brother from the States kindly painstakingly scanned and sent me a copy of what could perhaps be described as Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi’s wonderful spiritual biography of his father entitled ‘Anfas al-Arifin’.  It was originally written in Persian and then translated into Urdu (may Allah تعالى reward the person who helped me with some of the passages).  I found the following story of interest, especially as the name Karima holds some personal interest to me.   Shah Waliullah mentions on (pg.115-116) quoting from his father:

He said:  My shaheed father after his martyrdom would sometimes manifest in an outward bodily form and would visit me and inform me of current and future events.  My master and respected brother’s daughter Karima fell ill.  Her illness lasted for a long time.  During those days I was all alone sleeping in my chamber when my shaheed father suddenly came and said:  “I want to have a glimpse of Karima but at this moment in the house there are many other un related women present, going there in their presence is is dislikeable to me.  You move these un related women to the side so that I may see Karima”.

Because at that time shifting the women was not feasible (maslahat) I hung a curtain between them and Karima.  After this he manifested in such a way that other than me and Karima no one saw him.

Karima recognised him and said:  “It is a strange thing that people call him shaheed when he is alive”.

He said: “Leave this matter! You have endured much pain during your illness, Allah willing tomorrow morning at the time of the call to prayer (adhan) you will achieve complete relief”.  Saying this he got up and left via the door.  I also went after him, he said:  “You stay!” and then he disappeared.

The next day at the time of the Adhan of Fajr Karima’s soul departed and she attained relief from every kind of pain.

Fiqh of Promises

Salam.  I compiled these notes from the ‘Mawsuah’ volume 44 a while back.  As always those who are firmly grounded in Hanafi fiqh please send in any corrections.  Note: Please read carefully, the article is not saying it is ok to break promises, as some might misunderstand not fully reading it.  We ask Allah (Most High) to help us in keeping all of our promises.  Wassalam

-A promise can be for something which is unlawful, compulsory, permissible or recommended.

If the promise relates to that which is unlawful there is agreement amongst the scholars that it is not permitted to fulfill this promise. [Al-Adhkar of al-Nawawi with its commentary al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah (6/258), Ahkam al-Quran of al-Jassas (3/442)]

The scholars have mentioned that the one who promises to carry out an act which is not permitted or is a sin, it is unlawful for him to fulfill any part of it. Such as someone promising another alcohol or the like. Therefore it is not correct to say that everyone who breaks a promise is sinful or blameworthy, rather in this scenario breaking the promise is an act of obedience and obligatory.  [Ahkam al-Quran of al-Jassas (3/442)]

As for one who promises something which in the shariah is compulsory, such as promising to fulfill something which is a duty upon them, then it is compulsory to keep that promise.  [Ahkam al-Quran of al-Jassas (3/442) Al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah (6/258)]

If someone promises something which is permissible or recommended then they should fulfill their promise as this is from the signs of good character and characteristics of a believer.

The legal ruling for the above however is as follows: Fulfilling such a promise is not compulsory (wajib), except when the promise is linked to a condition, in which case it will become necessary to fulfill the promise. This is the position of the Hanafi’s, as Ibn Nujaim mentions quoting from the Qunyah that it is not necessary to fulfill a promise except if it is linked to a condition  [Al-Ashbah wal-Nazair of Ibn Nujaim p.344]

This is also mentioned in article 84 of the Majallah al-Ahkam al-Adaliyyah that: Promises in the form linked to conditions are necessary to fulfill

An example of this is: Zayd says to Amr: Pay off my loan from your wealth, and Amr promises to do so. Later Amr refuses to pay off Zayds loan as promised, then it is not incumbent on Amr to do so despite his making the promise.

As for the scenario that:  Sell this thing to so and so, and if he does not give the money for it I will give it, and then the purchaser does not give the money, then it is necessary for the one who made the promise to pay the price of the item as promised.  [Sharh al-Majallah of Ali Haydar (1/77)]

The basis of this ruling according to the Hanafi’s is that: A person informing another that they will do a thing in the future, if that thing is not already compulsory upon them, then it does not become necessary for them to fulfill it by making a promise to do so. As promises do not make acts where one has a choice to so something into one which becomes necessary on one to do so.  The reasoning of the Hanafi’s (in simple terms) is that when the promised is attached to a condition it is strengthened and thus becomes binding. [They also mention criteria for which conditions are valid- refer to Sharh al-Majallah (1/233,238,239) of al-Atasi and Rad al-Muhtar (4/22) of Ibn Abidin]

As for the scholars of the Hanafi schools interpretation of the verse of the Quran: ‘O you who believe, why do you say that which you do not do’. [Al-Saff:2]

They explain it as referring to a person making a promise whilst secretly in his mind not having an intention of fulfilling it. They also understand this verse to refer to a person who claims pious actions for himself which in reality he does not possess.  [Ahkam al-Quran (3/442) of al-Jassas]

As for the narration: “The signs of a hypocrite are three:…If he makes a promise he breaks it…”.

They have understood it to refer to a person who deliberately lies at the time of making a promise and has no intention of fulfilling it, as opposed to someone who finds him self in a situation where they cannot fulfill it.  [Mirqat al-Mafatih (1/106) of Mulla Ali al-Qari, Hashiyah al-Hamawi ala al-Ashbah wal-Nazair (2/110)]

The Hanafi scholars further added that breaking a promise in unlawful if a person makes it whilst secretly having no intention to fulfill it. As for if a person makes a promise and has the intention to fulfill it but is not able to then there is no sin attached. [Hashiyah al-Hamawi ala al-Ashbah (2/110)]

Most of the fuqaha have stated that the one who makes a promise should say the words: ‘Insha-Allah’, due to the Quranic verse and because the one making a promise does not know if he will be able to fulfill it or not. Therefore if he says ‘Inshallah’ and links his promise to the Will of Allah (the Exalted) he excuses himself in the scenario of being unable to fulfill it.  Imam al-Jassas from the Hanafi’s added that a promise which is made without mentioning ‘Inshallah’ is Makruh (disliked).  [Ahkam al-Quran (3/442) of al-Jassas]

Ziyarah al-Nabawiyyah: Mawlana Zafar al-Uthmani and Allamah al-Nimawi


Salam.  As some of you may recall I had a post on Adab of Ziyarah according to Allamah Ibn Taymiyyah, followed by a post which mentioned Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan’s Ziyarah of Madinah followed Insha-Allah by this one. It is still a rough draft in need of fine tuning, but I hope ithose who had the opportunity to read these three posts will see the place of the Ziyarah al-Madaniyyah (and in turn the blessed grave) in the hearts of Muslims from varying  scholastic schools.

Mawlana Zafar mentions a significant amount in his immense ‘Ilaa al-Sunan’ on the issue of Ziyarah, I selected the following brief extracts from the Dar al-Fikr edition:

He said on pg.3617

Al-Izz said in ‘Kitab al-Illal’: (From) The ‘al-Suwalat’ of Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal from his father the narration of Abu Ali al-Sawwaf from him, Abdullah said: I questioned my father regarding a person who touches the pulpit (minbar) of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and seeks blessings by his touching and kissing it, and does the same to the grave hoping of reward from Allah (Most High). He replied: There is no harm in this, likewise in that aswell.

What is strange from the Najdi’s with their being Hanbali’s is that they are harsh on this and severely forbid people from it, such that I saw a soldier from the people of Najd push with hand the chest of a woman who had kissed the window/grill (شباك) of the grave of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), she fell on her side and became uncovered whilst I was standing in front of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) sending blessings and peace upon him. There is no doubt that absorption in love causes this to be permitted for the one longing and yearning. For people differ in their levels in this, there are people who when they see him cannot control themselves but rather rush towards him, and people who are tranquil and stay at a distance. What is better than the statement of some of them:

I pass by these walls, the walls of Layla
And I kiss this wall and that wall
It’s not Love of the houses that has taken my heart
But of the One who dwells in those houses

This, and al-Nawawi said: It is not permissible to circle the grave of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), and it is disliked to attach the stomach or back to the wall of the grave, as was said by al-Halimi and others. He said: It is disliked to wipe it with with the hand and kiss it, rather etiquette is to be at a distance from it as he would be at distance from him if he was present during his lifetime. This is what is correct and what was said by the scholars and…, and he who thinks that wiping with the hand and its like is more thorough in blessing then this is from his ignorance and heedlessness, because blessing is in that which is in accordance with the sacred law and statements of the scholars. from ‘Wafa al-Wafa’.

I say: The common people should be forbidden from this to block the means (Sadd al-Dharaih), however there should not be harshness by beating and pushing in the chest for the one who cannot control themselves, when you have learnt of the scope of leeway in it. The visitor should also refrain from bowing to the grave when greeting, Ibn Jamah said: Some of the scholars said: It is from the innovations that the one who has no knowledge thinks is from honouring (tadhim). From ‘al-Wafa’.

Mentioning Imam al-Subki’s classic ‘Shifa al-Siqam’ via Allamah al-Nimawi he said  pg.3626:

Al-Nimawi said: It is a rare work, the likes of which has not been authored before, then Allamah Ibn Abd al-Hadi al-Hanbali rose to aid/defend his Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah and authored a book in its reply calling it: ‘Al-Sarim al-Munki ala Nahr al-Taqi al-Subki’. Allamah Ibn Allan wrote a fine book in reply to the al-Sarim’ and called it ‘Al-Mubrid al-Mubki’. Many of the statements if the al-Sarim were refuted by our teacher Allamah Muhammad Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi in his book ‘al-Sayy al-Mashkur’ which is a wonderful book on the issue of visiting the best of graves (sayyid al-qubur), may Allah make his words blessed and his efforts thanked. From ‘Taliq al-Taliq’

In the footnote on the same page of the Dar al-Fikr edition it says:

On the marginalia of the printed edition (10/516) it says: And where is the al-Sarim from the al-Shifa? The relation between them is as between the illness and its cure, and the earth and the heavens. The one who said this is truthful that: The name of the book is an embodiment (anwan) to that which it contains and its author, so understand this, and be just.

Shaykh Abd al-Baqi al-Ansari al-Luknawi


Please find another biography of one of our beloved scholars of the Hijaz. Based on Anas Yaqub Kutbi’s ‘Ialaam min Ard al-Nubuwwah’ (1/198-203).

Shaykh Muhammad Abd al-Baqi bin Mulla Ali Muhammad Mueen bin Muhammad Mubeen al-Luknawi

He is Muhammad Abd al-Baqi bin  Mulla Ali bin Mulla Muhammad Mueen bin Muhammad Mubeen al-Luknawi al-Hanafi al-Madani.
He was born on Sunday 18th of Rajab in city of Lucknow, a city well known for its great tradition of learning in the year 1286 after the blessed Prophetic migration. His father passed away when he was 4 years of age and he was taken under the care of his eldest brother Ibrahim.
His family was counted amongst the well known scholarly families of India, from this family being Allamah Muhammad Abd al-Halim al-Luknawi, author of a number of beneficial works (d.1285). Also Shaykh Abd al-Baqi’s cousin, the well known Muhaddith: Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi born in the year 1264. Likewise his grandfather Allamah Mulla Mueen the commentator of Sullam al-Thubut (sic) in Usul and the Sullam in Mantiq.

Those who met him described him of medium body, round face, dark complexion, light moustache, copious beard, always wearing a turban and at times a robe.

Shaykh Abd al-Baqi was raised in the home of his brother and care of his mother. His heart was opened for the memorization of the Quran, beginning it when 6 years of age and finishing it with its tajwid when 11.

His Studies in India
After completing the memorization of the Quran he joined one of the schools where he studied some of the fundamental sciences and the sciences of Mathematics, Algebra, Grammar from his cousin the great Allamah Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi (d.1304). He then proceeded to study the Islamic sciences by memorizing the texts and then studying with Shaykh Hafizullah al-Bandawi, after him with Shaykh Ayn al-Qudah bin Muhammad Wazir al-Haydarabadi. He then studied the six books of hadith and Hanafi fiqh and other sciences with Shaykh Fadlullah bin Nimatullah and Shaykh Muhammad Naeem bin Abd al-Hakim al-Nizami.
With Shaykh Abd al-Razzaq al-Luknawi he read the Muwatta, the six books of hadith, Mishkat al-Masabih and learnt from him the method of giving legal verdicts. Shaykh Abd al-Baqi was greatly influenced by Shaykh Abd al-Razzaq and followed in his footsteps. He (Allah have mercy on him) took care in seeking licences of transmission (ijazah) from his teachers for that which he read with them, they then authorised him to teach, so he taught and benefitted the students of knowledge in his city for a number of years.

First Journey to the Hijaz

In the year 1308 he set out for the Hijaz intending the Hajj and Ziyarah. During his stay in the Haramain he met with some of the scholars resident there who authorised him, amongst them being: Mufti Abbas bin Siddiq al-Makki, Shaykh Abdullah bin Hasan al-Makki, Allamah Ahmad Abul Khair Mirdad al-Hanafi, Shaykh Muhammad Ali bin Zahir al-Watri, Shaykh Muhammad al-Hariri. He read the Shatibiyyah with Shaykh Abdullah al-Makki and studied the ten canonical recitations with Shaykh Habib al-Rahman al-Kazimi. After this he returned back to India and resumed his teaching.

Second Journey to the Hijaz
After 5 years from his return to teaching in his native India after his return from the Hijaz, in the year 1313 Shaykh Abd al-Baqi set off for the Hijaz for the second time. Once again he met with some of the notable scholars of the Haramain and was authorised by a number of them, amongst them being: Allamah Ahmad al-Hadrawi, the Jurist Ahmad al-Mirghani better known as al-Mahjub.
He took the pattern chained narrations from Shaykh Salih al-Sinari and read some sciences with Shaykh Muhammad Saeed Ba Baseel. He returned to India once again where by now his reputation was growing along with the number of students studying with him due to his firm grasp of the Islamic sciences.

His Migration to the Hijaz

Upon returning to India he once again resumed teaching, paying a visit to Baghdad aswell to meet and study with some of its scholars. He stayed in India close to 10 years, however his soul longed to reside in proximity to the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace). He therefore decided to migrate permanently to Madinah the Illuminated in the year 1322. When in Madinah he was authorised by scholars such as: Shaykh Muhammad Amin Ridwan, Shaykh Falih al-Zahiri, Shaykh Ahmad bin Ismaeel al-Barzanji, Shaykh Shams al-Shinqiti, Shaykh Abdullah al-Qaddumi.

His Teaching in the Masjid al-Nabawi

When settled in Madinah he bagan teaching in the Masjid al-Nabawi, teaching hadith and the other sciences. His circle of students gradually grew until it became one of the biggest circles in the Masjid al-Nabawi until due to old age and ill health he only taught in his home.

Madrassa al-Nizamiyyah

Around the year 1324 he opened in his home a school named the ‘Madrassa al-Nizamiyyah’ where all of the Islamic sciences were taught. He financed it with his personal wealth, however it was not well known in the Hijaz, but only to those in Madinah who had seen it. Thus one will not find its mention in many of the hisorical works regarding the schools of the blessed city.

Stay in Damascus

When the first world war was announced Shaykh Abd al-Baqi was forced to leave Madinah, so he headed towards Damascus and resided there for close to 3 years. During his stay he came to know of the scholars there from whom he narrated and transmitted the pattern chained narration of the Damascans and Hanbali’s. When he finally returned to Madinah he did not resume teaching in the Masjid al-Nabawi due the journey causing him to be ill and his weakened eyesight.

His Students in Hijaz

A large number of the scholars benefitted from him and narrated from him from a different parts of the Muslim world. He was from the biggest Musnids of his age and there was no scholar in Madinah who resembled him in this respect. From his students were: Shaykh Ibrahim al-Khatani, Shaykh Abd al-Hayy al-Kattani, Shaykh Abd al-Hafiz al-Fasi, Shaykh Muhsin al-Musawi, Shaykh Ahmad Siddiq al-Ghumari and his two brothers Abdullah and Abd al-Aziz, Shaykh Muhammad Yasin al-Fadani, Shaykh Hasan al-Mashat, Shaykh Alawi al-Maliki, Shaykh Abu Bakr al-Habshi, Shaykh Muhammad al-Hafiz al-Najati, Shaykh Muhammad Saeed Daftardar, Shaykh Salih Idris al-Kilantani, Shaykh Mukhtar bin Uthman Makhdum.

His Works
Shaykh Abd al-Baqi authored close to 30 works, amongst them being:
Uqud al-Mutalaimah fi al-Asanid al-Aliyah
Al-Isad bil Isnad
Al-Manahil al-Salsalah fi al-Ahadith al-Musalsalah
Ihnam al-Anam bi Hukm Sama al-Sufiyyah al-Kiram
Kashf Rayn al-Rayb an Masalah al-Ghayb
Izhar al-Haq fi Bayah Mawlana Abd al-Khaliq
Al-Minh al-Madaniyyah fi Madhab al-Sufiyyah
Tuhfah al-Amajid bi Hukm Salat al-Janazah fi al-Masajid
Al-Haqiqah fi al-Aqiqah
Izalah al-Ghata fi hukm Kitabah al-Nisa
Ayat al-Kubra fi Miraj al-Isra
Tuhfah al-Khutaba min Khutub al-nabi (Sallalahu Alaihi Wassalam) wal-Khulafa
Tashil al-Mizan wa Bidayah al-Mizan fi Mantiq
Khayr al-Amal Tarajim Farangi Mahal
Barakah al-Bari fi Salalah Jadduna Mulla Hafiz al-Ansari
Risalah fi Manaqib al-Awliyah al-Khams
Sharh Risalah Tash Kubra Zada fi al-Adab
Tawdih al-Sarf wa Mizan al-Sarf

His Donated Library
He left his large library behind containing many rare manuscripts and his books adorned with his beautiful notes indicating to his vast knowledge. He donated his home to the people of his city visiting Madinah the Illuminated so that they would have somewhere to say during their visit. As for his Libray, one of his family members in Madinah mentioned that his library was taken back by one of his relatives to India.

Passing Away

Shaykh Abd al-Baqi passed away on the 4th of Rabi al-Awwal in the year 1364. He was buried in the al-Baqi, and with his passing away the people of Madinah buried one of its pious scholars. Allah (Most High) have mercy upon him and all the other scholars mentioned in this post.