Author Archives: al-Kakazai

Kaydani: Faraid of the Prayer – Pt.2

*Chapter One: The Obligatory Elements (Faraid) of the Prayer
They are fifteen, some of them being outside (the form of the prayer) and some within (the prayer).

As for (the obligatory elements) outside (the form of the prayer) they are eight:
1- The time[1]
2- Cleanliness of the body[2]
3- Cleanliness of the clothing[3]
4- Cleanliness of the place[4]
5- Covering of nakedness[5]
6- Facing the direction of prayer (qiblah)[6]
7- The intention[7]
8- The first takbir[8]

[1] It is a condition that the person praying believes that time for the prayer has entered, so that the act of worship will be performed with a firm intention, and to be sure the time for prayer has not expired as mentioned in al-Maraqi (p.218).
[2] From ritual and physical impurities. Ritual impurity (najasha hukmiyah/hadath) is that which the sacred law has classified as an impurity even though the person may seem outwardly clean and not have any physical filth upon themselves. An example of this is the state of not being in wudu.
Physical impurity (najasah al-haqiqiyah/khabath) are things such as urine and its like. Umdah al-Riayah (1/156)
[3] The condition for the cleanliness in terms of clothing is any garment which moves with the movement of the person wearing it. Maraqi al-Falah (p.208)
[4] It is a condition that the place of the two feet, hands, knees and forehead are clean according to the strongest opinion in the madhab. If one wishes to pray upon an area which is filthy and a thin piece of cloth which is not transparent is placed on the area, where the odour of the filth cannot be smelt through it, the prayer is correct. Naf’ al-Mufti (p.215), al-Maraqi (p.208)
[5] A mans nakedness is: from below the navel to below the knee. Rad al-Muhtar (1/271)
A free woman’s nakedness is: all of her body except her face, hands and feet. As for the opinion within the madhab that the woman’s feet are not a part of her nakedness, this is the position chosen by the author of al-Wiqayah (p.142), it was declared to be Sahih by the author of al-Hidayah (1/43), al-Muhit (p.84), al-Tabyin (1/96). The author of Majma al-Anhur (1/81) said: ‘this is the more correct position’, and al-Haskafi said in al-Dur al-Muntaqa (1/81): ‘this is the relied upon position of the madhab’.
[6] The one praying in Makka and able to see the Kaaba must face the Kaaba itself, because of his ability to do so. It is obligatory for the ones who cannot see the Kaaba including those far away to face its direction. Al-Maraqi (p.212-213)
[7] The intention is for the one praying to know in their heart which prayer they are offering. Articulating with tongue has been classified by the scholars as being desirable (mustahab), as it enables the one praying to gather his thoughts together in order to make the intention. Also due to the change in times and numerous preoccupations on peoples minds, articulating the intention verbally is regarded as being helpful. If the person praying was asked as to which prayer they were offering and they replied immediately without pausing, then the prayer is valid, and this is the more correct position. Al-Wiqayah (p.143), Umdah al-Riayah (1/159), Hadiyyah Ibn Imad (p.456), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/415), Naf’ al-Mufti (p.237), al-Maraqi (p.217)
[8] It is also referred to as the prohibiting takbir (tahrimah) because it prohibits within the prayer permissible acts such as eating, drinking, and speech. Al-Jawhar

Kaydani/Umdah Intro and Terms Pt.1

Salam, This translation and commentary was prepared not too long ago whilst I was staying in Liwa on the edge of desert famously known as the empty quarter.
This text is perhaps the shortest work on hanafi fiqh, it only covers the rulings related to the prayer, and has been taught in some parts of the muslim world. The reader will find a commentary in the form of footnotes taken from Sh. Salah Abul Hajjs edition.
The name of the text is famously known as Khulasah al-Kaydani, and according to some of the scholars such as Imam al-Nablusi the title of the work is ‘Umdah al-Musalli’.
I realise that the footnoting maybe lengthy at times, and therefore difficult to follow, If some kind soul wishes to volunteer to place the footnotes directly below the text then ‘Marhaba!’.
Much more could be written about the ascription of the work to the author Imam Lutfullah al-Nasafi, and the discussion surrounding exactly who he is, also some of the non fatwa positions in the text (which have been highlighted in the footnotes). But that is for another time and place inshallah, for now the aim of this is for students to benefit. Wassalam
All praise is due to Allah the Lord of the worlds, salutations and blessings be upon His messenger Muhammad and all of his family.

Know that the slave/servant is tribulated[1] between obeying Allah (the most high) thereby being rewarded and between disobeying Him and being punished.

Tribulation is related to that which is permissible and impermissible, in terms of both performance and non performance.

Therefore it is necessary for an exposition of the types of legislated and non legislated acts, along with an explanation of their meanings and rulings so that it may be easier for the student to fully understand them.

So we say and with/through Allah is success:

The legislated actions are of four categories:
1- Obligatory (fard)
2- Compulsory (wajib)
3- Recommended (sunnah)
4- Desirable (mustahab)
They are followed by: permissible (mubah)

The non legislated actions are if two categories:
1- Unlawful (muharram)
2- Disliked (makruh)
They both are followed by: invalidator (mufsid) of an act which has been begun

In total there are eight categories.

As for the Fard: it is that which is established by a definitive proof in which there is no doubt (shubha)
The ruling for it is: reward for its performance, punishment for non performance without a reason[2], disbelief for denying regarding that which there is agreement[3].

As for the Wajib: it is that which is established by a proof in which there is some doubt.
The ruling for it is: similar to that of the fard in terms of action and not belief, such that its denier does not commit disbelief

As for the Sunnah: it is that which the Prophet (s) performed habitually[4] leaving it only once or twice.
The ruling for it is: reward for its performance, blame for its non performance[5] in the sunnahs of guidance[6].

As for the Mustahab: it is that which the Prophet (s) performed at times and left at other times[7], and that which is beloved to the early Muslims (salaf)[8].
The ruling for it is: reward for its performance and no blame for it being left[9]

As for the Mubah: it is that which the slave has a choice in between performing and leaving.[10]
The ruling for it is: neither reward nor punishment for its performance or leaving.

As for the Muharram: it is that regarding which the prohibition is established without any conflicting evidence[11].
The ruling for it is: reward for its being left for Allah (azza wa jall), punishment for its performance, disbelief for regarding as permissible that which there is agreement as being unlawful.

As for the Makruh: it is that regarding which the prohibition is established with the presence of a conflicting evidence[12].
The ruling for it is: reward for it being left for Allah, fear of punishment for its performance, not being disbelief to regard as lawful.

As for the mufsid: it nullifies the action which has been begun
The ruling for it is: punishment for its deliberate not accidental performance

Then know that the prayer encompasses the first four in terms of from the sacred law, and the last four are found in it by nature[13]

Therefore it is necessary to detail each category in a succinct but comprehensive way organised into eight chapters in order to make it easy for the believers.

[1] Meaning that the human being is tested by Allah (the most high) as mentioned in the Quran that: ‘Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight’. [Yusuf Ali translation]
The reason for why humans feel that they are undergoing trials and tests is because of the choice that they have been given in being obedient or disobedient to the divine commands. al-Jawhar
It should also be noted that this world is a place of being tested and tribulated and is not our final abode, unlike the dealing of many with this world as if it is everlasting and that they will never leave it.
[2] Meaning that there are times when an obligatory (fard) action can be left or changed, examples of this are a traveller not having to fast and shortening the prayer.
[3] This does not apply to the differences of opinion of the scholars about whether certain acts are obligatory (fard) or not. Al-Jawhar
[4] Imam al-Nablusi mentioned in al-Jawhar that this definition also includes that which was habitually practised the four khalifah’s (Allah be pleased with them). This definition was also supported al-Luknawi who said in Tuhfah al-Akhyar (p.84): ‘Many of our companions such as the authors of al-Hidayah, al-Tahrir, Bahr al-Ulum, authors of al-Kashf and al-Tahqiq, al-Tabyin, Islah wal-Idah, Mirqat al-Usul, al-Muhit, al-Khulasah, al-Nahr, Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi, al-Ta
htawi and others defined a recommended act (sunnah) in a manner that it includes the practice of the khalifah’s, making it such that the one who leaves it is blamed. Rather the author al-Binayah regarded leaving it as being punishable’.
[5] Leaving the emphasized recommended acts (sunnah al-muakkadah) is close to being unlawful, and this is also the status of the prohibitively disliked act (makruh tahrimi). The scholars mentioned that leaving the emphasized sunnah may lead to being deprived of things such as intercession in the next world. Tuhfah al-Abrar (p.87-88), Rad al-Muhtar (6/337)
[6] Meaning the emphasized recommended acts (sunnah al-muakkadah)
[7] This definition is also mentioned in al-Tabyin (1/77), al-Hidayah (2/92), al-Inayah (2/92) and Majma al-Anhur (1/139). Imam Ibn Abidin said in Minhah al-Khaliq (2/278) echoing that which was mentioned by Ibn Nujaim in al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/29): ‘Know that the scholars of usul do not differentiate between mustahab and mandub…that which was not habitually performed is mandub and mustahab, even if it was not performed after its being encouraged as mentioned in al-Tahrir. According to the jurists (fuqaha): mustahab is: that which was performed by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) at times and left at other times. Mandub is: That which was performed once or twice to teach its being permissible as mentioned in Sharh al-Nuqayah. Ibn Nujaim said in Kitab al-Taharah:…the preferred view is that of the scholars of usul’.
[8] Al-Nablusi mentioned in al-Jawhar that this applies even if it was not practised by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Also what is meant by the term salaf are the early Imams such as Abu Hanifah and his students (Allah be pleased with them all).
Imam al-Nablusi’s definition of the term salaf is very interesting and is overlooked by many of those who use the term. This is because the salaf had numerous differing understandings of Islamic law which resulted in different schools of law (fiqh). Therefore if we say that we follow the salaf we should clarify which of the schools of the salaf we follow. Is it the school of Kufah which developed over time into the hanafi madhab, or the school of Madinah which developed into the Maliki madhab? If one does not specify which school of the salaf they follow it would be illogical as we know that the salaf in some instances had a varying number of views on one legal issue, which it would be impossible for a person to implement all at once.
[9] Al-Luknawi said in Tuhfah al-Abrar (p.91-92): ‘To conclude, the leaving of the sunnah in terms of belittling or mocking even it be from the zawaid is disbelief. Leaving it deliberately but not by way belittling is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrimi) being a sin and deserving of blame if it is an emphasized (mukkadah) sunnah, it makes no difference if it is the sunnah of the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) or of companions (Allah be pleased with them)’.
[10] It is that which the legally responsible person may perform or leave without any consequence of reward or punishment. It could also be defined as that which the person has a choice whether to perform or not. Al-Jawharah (2/280), Dur al-Mukhtar and Rad al-Muhtar (6/336)
The mubah maybe performed with an accompanying intention which would make it something rewardable or sinful. An example would be to eat with the intention of having enough strength to worship Allah (the most high). Likewise the wearing of fine clothing although permissible may become a sin if worn with the intention of arrogance and feeling of superiority over others. Al-Durar al-Mubahah (p.8-9), al-Jawhar
[11] Meaning a conflicting evidence which would indicate to that action being permissible
[12] Meaning the conflict of two evidences, one which indicates it to be permissible, the other which indicates to it being unlawful. Makruh tahrimi is closer to the unlawful (haram) due to this conflict of evidences where the evidence for it being unlawful is given precedence and therefore it is necessary for it to be left. Al-Ikhtiyar (5/413), Hasan al-Dirayah (4/95)
As for the disliked (makruh tanzihi) the one who performs it is not sinful, however one is rewarded for avoiding it. Not performing a disliked (makruh tanzihi) act is preferable. Rad al-Muhtar (6/337)
[13] What this means ‘by nature’ is that a human beings nature is to be forgetful or to be lazy, such that these two traits sometimes affect the performance of the prayer. Therefore ones nature of being lazy may lead to performing something in the prayer which is disliked etc. al-Jawhar

Adhkar (Invocations) After the Prayer

Salam, some of us were fortunate enough to read the beginners text on fiqh ‘Tuhfa al-Mubtadi’ authored by one of the Ahsai hanafi scholars. A translation of it has been prepared (May Allah Taala facilitate its publication). During the sessions where we would gain clarification of some elements of the commentary authored by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla, he (Sh. Yahya) suggested that the section on the adhkar after the prayer be added in from his appendix to Sh. Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s ‘Wasilah al-Falah’. I requested Sh. Yahya to select some of the more essential adhkar for us from his compilation and he kindly did so. Apologies for the typsetting below, Arabic/English can be a bit awkward. Note: All adhkar have been referenced by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla and can be found in the footnotes.
The Invocations (Adhkar) and Supplications (Dua) To Be Recited After the Prayer
Compiled by Sheikh Yahya bin Muhammad al-Mulla

It is desirable to make much invocation and supplication after making the salam from the obligatory and other prayers, Due to His Taala’s words:

‘So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations [al-Sharh:7-8]

The scholars of Tafsir explaining this verse said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate[2]

From that which is reported regarding this is:

Abu Umamah (ra) said that it was said to the Messenger of Allāh (s) : “Which Supplication (Dua) is most likely to be accepted?” He said: “In the last part of the night and after the obligatory prayers[3]

From the invocations (adhkar) and supplications (dua) to be recited after the obligatory prayers is to say:

Three timesأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ

اللهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَ مِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَاذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَ الإِكْرَام[4]

The above can be recited after the obligatory prayers, they may also be recited after the non obligatory prayers along with the following invocations:

لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
اللَّهُمَّ لا مانع لما أعطيتَ ولا مُعطيَ لما منعت، ولا ينفع ذا الجَدِّ منك الجَدُّ[5]
آية الكرسي[6]
33 timesسُبْحَانَ الله
33 timesوَ الْحَمِدُ للهِ
33 timesاللهَ اَكْبَر
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ[8]

And then make dua (supplicate) with the following:
اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الجبن وأعوذ بك أن أُرَدَّ إلى أرذل العمر، وأعوذ بك من فتنة الدنيا وأعوذ بك من عذاب القبر[9]
[1] Taken from Sheikh Yahya’s appendix to Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s selection of invocations for the morning and evening entitled ‘Wasilah al-Falah’.
[2] Reported by Abd bin Humaid, Ibn al-Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Mardawayh, from a number of routes, from Ibn Abbas (ra) regarding the His Taala’s words: “So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations”, He said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate to your Lord, and ask your need. It is reported by Ibn Abi Dunya from Abdullah bin Masud, it is reported al-Faryabi, Abd bin Humaid, In Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim from Mujahid. See al-Dur al-Manthur of al-Suyuti (6/364-365).
[3] Reported by al-Tirmidhi (3494) who said the hadith was Hasan Gharib.
[4] Thawban (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah after finishing his prayer would ask for forgiveness thrice and say: اللهم أنت السلام … الخ
Al-Walid said: I said to Al-Awzai “How was the asking for forgiveness?” He said:
استغفر الله، استغفر الله، استغفر الله
Reported by Muslim (591), Abu Dawud (1513), al-Tirmidhi (300), al-Nasai in al-Mujtaba (3/68), Ibn Majah (928)
[5] Warrad the Mawla of al-Mughirah bin Subah said: Mughirah wrote to Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan (ra): The Messenger of Allah (s) would say after the prayer when he had said the salam: لا إله إلا الله وحده … الخ
Reported by al-Bukhari (844), Muslim (593), Abu Dawud (1505), al-Nasai (3/70), in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah (129).
[6] Abu Umamah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) said: ‘Whoever recites Ayah al-Kursi after every obligatory prayer, will not be prevented from entering paradise except by death’. Reported by al-Nasai (9928) in al-Kubra
[7] Uqbah bin Amir said: The Messenger of Allah (s) ordered me to recite the muawadhatayn after every prayer. Abu Dawud’s version mentions Muawadhat. Therefore {قل هو الله أحد}
, {قل أعوذ برب الفلق} and {قل أعوذ برب الناس} should be recited. Reported by Abu Dawud (1532), al-Tirmidhi (2905), al-Nasai (3/68).
[8] Abu Hurraira (ra) said that the Prophet of Allāh (s) said: “Whoever glorifies Allāh thirty three times after every Salāh, and praises Allāh thirty three times and magnifies Allāh thirty three times and says to complete the hundred There is no god but Allāh. He is alone and has no partner. To Him belongs sovereignty and to Him belongs all praise and He has power over all things,” his sins will be forgiven even if they are like the foam of the sea. Reported by Muslim (595), Abu Dawud (1504), al-Nasai (9970)
[9] Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) would seek protection with these
words: اللهم إني أعُوذُ بك من الجُب


Salam, the short piece below was written some three years ago after the mawlid at Wembley. I came to know of the blessed Sharh of the Shamail by Imam al-Lahji during the lesson of Sh. Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki which we attended during Umra the previous year. This was the lesson whose picture is on the banner above, mashallah after the lesson he kindly gave me, Imran A and Khayyam S licenses to narrate hadith from him (May Allah have mercy on him).

Asslamu Alaikum

Sheikh Hamza’s mentioning at the mawlid recently that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) liked the colour green jogged my memory about something i had read, alhumdulillah I managed to locate it, and thought i would share it with you. I found it in Sheikh al-Lahji’s commentary on the Shamail compiled by Sheikh Yusuf al-Nabahani, the text of the hadith is in square brackets, the rest is Sheikh al-Lahjis explanation, he said (1/293):
[And] Ibn al-Sunni and Abu Nuaym narrate in ‘al-Tibb al-Nabawi’ with a weak chain from Ibn Abbas May Allah be please with them both that:[He] the Messenger of Allah [Peace and Blessings upon Him liked to look at greenery] meaning trees and green vegetation… [and running/flowing water] meaning He loved to look at them and found pleasure in it, His liking to look at them was not for the reason that He would eat the greenery or drink the water

Sayyid Ibrahim al-Khalifah al-Hasani al-Shafi

I found this old picture of Sayyid Ibrahim al-Khalifah who is a Shafi Scholar and respected for his attention to the sciences of hadith. I visited him twice in al-Ahsa, once at his masjid opposite the fort pictured elsewhere on this blog.
The second time was in the basement of his home where he was reading Sahih al-Bukhari with his students. He began the lesson by reading hadith for quite some time, and then went round each student asking them to read several hadith each, alhumdulilah I was honoured to be able to read to him when my turn came.
After the dars I asked him for Ijazah which he kindly gave me, unfortunately I do not have his thabat at hand to scan, however it should be noted that he narrates from over 70 different Shuyukh.
He has studied the Shafi madhab with the scholars of al-Ahsa, is known for his abilities as a Munshid and has a number of students, some of them quite young who study with him and look up to him as a father figure.
It is not difficult to see why as the Sheikh is one of the most friendliest scholars I have met, and one quickly feels at ease around him.
May Allah swt keep him in good health and enable us to benefit from him further.
NOTE: The picture above was taken some time ago

It-haf: Nullifiers of Wudu -Pt.6

It is Nullfied by:
– Meaning the wudu

That which exits
– Meaning appears

from the two passageways,
– The front and the rear, even if it be a small amount, whether it be an excretory product or not[1]

the flowing of filth[2]
– Such as blood and pus

from other than them,
– Meaning other than the two passageways, by the impurity flowing to a place which is required to be washed in wudu or ghusl. Therefore blood flowing within the eye from one side to the other is not regarded as nullifying the wudu.
The defintion of flowing is: that the the blood rises and flows from the cut.
If a person has a cut and wipes away the blood as soon as it appears, such that if he had not then it would have flowed onto the skin, then the wudu is still nullified. If someone squeezes a cut such that the blood flows, then also the wudu is nullified according to the chosen opinion.
If a person bites an object and then notices traces of blood on the object, or cleans the mouth with a toothstick and notices blood on it, the wudu is not nullified aslong as it is not known if there was a flow of blood.

vomiting a mouthful
– Meaning filling the persons mouth, such that it is not possible to close the mouth except with difficulty.[3]

if not phlegm,
– Wudu is only nullified if that which is vomited is food. As for phlegm by itself, its being vomited does not nullify even if it is a large amount. If the phlegm vomited is admixed with food, that which dominates is taken into consideration, and thus the ruling will be given to that which is more. Likewise clotted blood which descends from the head does not nullify[4]

sleep of one not firmly seated[5],
– In his method of sitting, such that he falls asleep whilst on his side, lying back down or face down. Wudu is therefore not nullified by one sleeping firmly seated in a cross legged position even if leaning against something where it to be removed they would fall back.[6]
A person falling asleep whilst performing prayer in the sunnah manner does not nullify his wudu.[7]

– Whichever form it may take, it is defined as being when the intellect is overcome and causes the person to faint.

– It is defined as being when the intellect no longer fully exists.

– It is defined as that a person would not walk in an absolute straight line

loud laughter[9]
– whether deliberately or forgetfully, it is defined as being heard by the person themselves and the one next to them.

of an adult praying,
– Thereby excluding those who are not adult, therefore the laughter of a child in his prayer does not nullify their wudu, however it would still nullify the prayer.
Also the loud laughter of an adult is a nullifier of wudu only in a complete prayer, thereby excluding the funeral prayer and prostration of recitation (sajdah al-tilawah), however it would still nullify the prayer itself.

lustful touching.
– By the coming in contact of the private parts[10]

Additional Rulings: If a doubt occurs in a persons mind whether they have washed some parts of the body or not, then they are to wash that bodypart aslong as they have not finished the wudu, if this doubt ocurs after finishing the wudu then they are not to go back and wash. Likewise if he is certain that he has not washed one of the body parts but is not sure which one it is, he washes the left foot as it is one of the last body parts to be washed.
If a person is certain of their being in a state of purity and has doubts whether they are in a state of ritual impurity then they take go with the view of which they are certain, likewise the opposite. If he is certain of both occuring but is not sure of which of them occurred first then the person is to regards themselves as pure.
If a person has doubts about the purity of water and clothing then this doubt is given no credence.

[1] The hanafi scholars hold the view that something such as a stone where it to be excreted by an individual nullifies the wudu, even though it is not normally regarded as being an excretory product. One of the evidences they cite in support of this view is that which is reported by al-Darqutni in his Sunan (1/151 with al-Taliq al-Mughni) from Ibn Abbas in a marfu form that: ‘Wudu is from that which exits not that which enters’, the chain contains the narrator Shubah regading whom there is some disagreement, some of the scholars of hadith declared him trustworthy whilst others weakened him. The more correct view is that it is a mawquf narration of Ibn Abbas as related by Saeed bin Mansur. Al-Bayhaqi said that it was also reported from Ali. See Fath al-Qadeer (1/25).
[2] Al-Darqutni reports in his Sunan (1/157) that the Messenger of Allah (s) said: ‘Wudu is from every flowing blood’. For other evidences and reasoning refer to Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/62).
[3] Abu Dawud (2381), al-Nasai, al-Tirmidhi (87) who said: this is the most authentic thing regarding this subject, al-Hakim in his Mustadrak (1/426) who said: Sahih according to the two Sheikhs (Bukhari and Muslim) all narrate that: Abu Darda said : ‘The Prophet (s) vomited and then performed wudu. Later I met Thawban in the masjid of Damascus and I mentioned it to him. Thawban said: He is right; I poured water for the wudu of the Prophet (s)’.
[4] All that which is not an impurity, such as non flowing blood, vomit less than a mouthful in not filth according to Abu Yusuf, whereas Muhammad bin Hasan said that it was filth out of precaution, however the fatwa is with the position of Abu Yusuf. This rule has been expressed by some as: ‘That which is not an impurity is not filth’. Therefore any of the above if they were to come into contact with an object or liquid would not cause them to become filthy.
Al-Aini said in his work al-Binayah (1/128) that flowing blood from a cut which does not reach an area which has to be washed (in wudu or ghusl) is classified as being pure (tahir) according to the most apparent view. This was the view of Abu Yusuf and was also the position chosen by al-Karkhi, Abu Abdullah al-Qallas, Muhammad bin Salamah, Abu Nasr, Abul Qasim and Abu Layth. Muhammad bin Hasan’s view was that it was still filth (najas) and he was supported in this view by Abu Bak
r al-Askaf and Abu Jafar al-Hindawani.
The author of al-Hidayah supported the first view and declared it to be Sahih, as was quoted by al-Tumurtashi in Fath al-Ghaffar who added that this position was relied upon by the authors of the mutun and therefore is the madhab position.
In al-Jawharah al-Nayyarah (1/9) its mentioned that fatwa will be given according to the position of Abu Yusuf if it comes into contact with solid materials like clothes and the body, and that fatwa will be given according to the position of Muhammad bin Hasan if it comes into contact with liquids such as water. This position was cited by Ibn Nujaim in al-Bahr (1/115), al-Tumurtashi in Fath al-Ghaffar, al-Haskafi in al-Dur al-Mukhtar (1/95) and was affirmed by the author of glosses on al-Dur al-Mukhtar, namely al-Tahtawi, Ibn Abidin and al-Rafi.
[5] Ibn Abidin (1/141) mentions that sleep is a natural state which occurs in humans without their control, it prevents the outward and inner senses from fully functioning despite their being sound. It also prevents the use of the intellect despite its being present.
Sleep and that which is mentioned after it from unconsciousness, insanity and intoxication are situations where there is a possibilty that the person may have entered a state of ritual impurity without noticing, therefore it is regarded as being so out of precaution.
The above rulings are deduced from the following hadiths: Aishah (ra) said that the Messenger of Allah (s) fell unconscious, He awoke and washed to pray, He then again fell unconscious, then awoke and washed’, reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
And based on His (s) words ‘ The eyes are the strap of the rear passageway, so the one who sleeps should perform wudu’, reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and graded Hasan by Ibn al-Salah, al-Nawawi and al-Munhiri. For further details refer to Nasb al-Rayah (1/44-47).
[6] Due to the hadith of Anas who said ‘The companions of the Messenger of Allah (s) waited for the Isha prayer until their heads began nodding up and down from drowsiness and sleep. They would then pray without doing wudu ‘ reported by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud. See al-Talkhis al-Habir (1/180).
[7] Due to the hadith of Ibn Abbas (ra) that the Prophet (s) said: ‘The one who sleeps whilst in the sajda does not have to perform wudu except if he lies down, for if he lies down his joints become loose’ reported by Ahmad (1/256) Abu Dawud (202) al-Tirmidhi (77) and others. See Nasb al-Rayah (1/44-45) of al-Zaylai.
[8] Ibn Abidin (1/144) defined it as a state which overcomes the mind due to alchohol and its like causing the intellect not to function properly, resulting in it not being able to differentiate between matters which are good and evil.
[9] Loud laughter is defined as that which can be heard by the person themselves and those next to them. Laughter on the other hand is defined as being heard by the person themselves but not by the person next to them, this nullifies the prayer and not the wudu. Smiling is that to which there is no sound, it neither affects the prayer nor the state of wudu. See Tabyin al-Haqaiq of al-Zaylai (1/11).
The evidence for it is that which is reported by Ibn Adiyy in al-Kamil from the hadith of Ibn Umar who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (s) said: Whoever laughs out aloud in the prayer must repeat the wudu and the prayer’. Its chain contains Baqiyyah who is a mudallis, however he has explicitly stated hearing, and a truthful mudallis if explicit about hearing results in the removal of the problem of tadlis in the chain. And Baqiyyah belongs to this category of narrators. See Nasb al-Rayah (1/48).
Abu Hanifah narrates in his Musnad that He (s) said ‘While the Messenger of Allah (s) was praying with the people, a person with a problem with his sight, walked into a covered well and fell. At this some people burst out laughing. The Messenger of Allah (s) said: whoever amongst you laughed out loud should repeat their wudu and their prayer’. See Fath al-Qadir (1/35)
This is an issue in which the Hanafis are alone in following the hadith and have abandoned analogy (qiyas) because of it. It is a clear proof that the Hanafis give precedence to the hadith over anology and that they are the most stringent of people in following the hadith. See al-Lubab (1/45)
[10] Without a barrier between the two desirous individuals, this is the position of Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf. They argue that this situation would normally result in the emission of madhi (pre-seminal fluid) which nullifies the wudu and is treated like the scenario of sleep mentioned earlier. It is evident however that mere contact between the two private parts of two individuals is does not always result in the release of madhi, even if it be with desire, and therefore does not nullify the wudu. This was the view of Muhammad bin Hasan and was relied upon by many of the scholars. See Hashiyah Ibn Abidin.

It-haf: Makruhat of Wudu -Pt.5

Disliked (Makruh) Acts of Wudu[1]
From its disliked (makruh)[2] acts are:
Striking the face with water, excessive use of water[3], to not wash the body parts thoroughly, wiping three times with new water.

[1] The makruhat of wudu are not mentioned in the main text, rather the author mentions them in his commentary Minhaj al-Raghib p.80.
[2] Makruh according to the fuqaha is of two types: ‘makruh tahrimi’ which is meant when the term makruh or karaha is used in its unqualified sense, its ruling is that avoiding it is compulsory (wajib) as mentioned in Fath al-Qadeer.
The second type of makuh is: ‘makruh tanzihi’, its ruling is that avoiding it is better than performing it.
One will find in the books of the hanafi madhab that at times the scholars may classify something as being makruh, but do not specify whether it is tahrimi or tanzihi. In this case it is necessary to look at evidences for that particular issue. If the prohibition regarding it is conjectural (zanni) then it is classified as makruh tahrimi. If the evidence is not prohibitory in meaning but rather indicates that the thing should be left then it is tanzihi. For a more detailed and precise discussion refer to al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/20).
[3] Excess is defined as using more water than is required to perform wudu, due to the hadith of Abdullah bin Umar: ‘The Messenger of Allah (s) passed by Sa’d while he was performing wudu and said, “What is this extravagance, Sa’d?” He said, “Is there extravagance in the use of water?” He said, “Yes, even if you are at a flowing river’. Reported by Ahmad (1/222) and Ibn Majah (425)

It-haf: Mustahab Acts of Wudu -Pt.4

Its Desirable (Mustahab) Acts:
– Meaning of washing (wudu), it is also called mandub, adab and fadilah. It is defined as that which was performed by the Prophet (s) once/at times, and left at other times, and that which is beloved to the early muslims (salaf).[1]

Beginning from the right,
– Meaning with the right side when washing the hands and feet[2] not the face nor ears.

wiping the neck,
– With the back of the hands[3] the throat is not wiped because to do so would be an innovation.

the transmitted invocations during it
– There are a number of invocations mentioned which can be recited whilst washing and wiping the various body parts.[4]

Additional Rulings: From the etiquettes (adab) of washing (wudu) are: To face the qiblah in other than the state of istinja[5], to perform it before the entering of the prayer time except for the one with a chronic excuse[6], the moving of a loose ring[7], not seeking help from another person[8], to not engage in wordly talk, to join between the intention of the heart and verbalizing with the tongue, the lengthening of the white patches/streaks[9], the recitation of surah al-Qadr and praying two units[10] in other than a disliked prayer time.[11]

[1] In the work Tuhfa al-Fuqaha (1/21) of Ala al-Din al-Samarqandi said the difference between sunnah and adab is defined as that: the sunnah is that which was the continuous practice of the Messenger of Allah (s) which was only left by Him (s) once or twice. Adab is defined as being that which was performed by the Messenger of Allah (s) once or twice and was not habitually performed.
The scholars have stated that there is no difference between the terms: mustahab, mandub, adab, fadilah, nafl. See Dur al-Mukhtar with al-Hashiyah (1/123).
[2] Beginning with right side when washing has been mentioned as being mustahab in a number of works of the hanafi madhab such as al-Kanz, al-Tanwir and Sharh al-Durar. It has been classified as being sunnah in the work al-Shirah and in al-Hidayah as being from the fadail.
However Abu Dawud (4141) and Ibn Majah (402) report that He (s) said: ‘If you perform wudu then begin from your right side’, it is also reported by Ibn Khuzaimah (178) Ibn Hibban (1078) in their Sahih’s. A number of companions who relate His (s) manner of performing wudu clearly mention his beginning the washing the hands and feet from the right hand side, this therefore indicates this was His (s) regular practice as the companions related what they saw from His (s) habitual performance, therefore it is a sunnah.
[3] Abu Ubaid al-Qasim narrates in al-Tahur (192/386) from al-Qasim bin Abd al-Rahman from Musa bin Talha said: ‘He who wipes his neck with his head will be protected from the ghul on the day of judgement’.
Ghul: a ring of steel placed around the neck to debase and torture. The hadith is Mawquf but it takes the ruling of Marfu as the content of the hadith was not mentioned based merely on opinion. It is strengthened by that which is mentioned in a marfu form is Musnad al-Firdaws from the hadith of Ibn Umar that: ‘Wiping the neck is a protection from the ‘ghul’ on the day of judgement’ however its chain is weak, except that that it is agreed that the weak hadith are acted upon in virtuous actions’. See Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/57) and Talkhis al-Habir (1/135-136).
[4] Al-Tahtawi said in his Hashiyah ala Maraqi al-Falah (p.45): Ibn Ameer Hajj said: Our Sheikh the Hafidh of his age, Shihab al-Din bin Hajr al-Asqalani was asked regarding the narrations cited in the Muqaddimah of Abu Layth regarding the invocations for the limbs. He answered: They are weak and the scholars are lenient when mentioning the weak hadith and acting upon it in virtuous actions. None of them are established from the Messenger of Allah (s), neither from his statements, nor actions. Therefore there is no harm in acting upon them based on the principles of the weak (hadith) along with its conditions.
Imam al-Nawawi said in al-Adhkar (p.81) that the jurists (fuqaha) have said it is mustahab to recite the prayers whilst washing each body part.
[5] Because it is an act of worship or a prelude to it, therefore one chooses for it the best place which is to face the direction of prayer (qiblah).
[6] A person with a chronic excuse is someone repeatedly nullifying his wudu and is unable to control it. This person performs wudu for the time of every prayer, and his wudu is nullified with the prayer time finishing. Therefore should he perform wudu before the entering of the prayer time- eg. Performing wudu near the end of the time of Zuhr so that he may pray Asr- his wudu is nullified as soon as the time for Asr starts. His wudu will only have lasted till the end of Zuhr time. Therefore in the case of a person with a chronic excuse there is no benefit in his performing wudu before the time for that prayer starting.
In the case of the person whom is normal and does not have a problem (ie. Someone who is not classified as having a chronic excuse) it is sunnah for them to make wudu for the prayer before the time of prayer entering. After the entry of the prayer time it becomes fard (obligatory) to perform wudu. This is one of the issues wherein a sunnah act is superior to a fard action, Imam al-Suyutis versification of these issues can be found in al-Ashbah wa al-Nazair (p.275).
[7] As for a ring which is tightly fitted on the finger then it is necessary to move it in wudu and ghusl in order for the water to reach the skin area it covers. Because the Prophet (s): ‘When He would perform wudu for the prayer would move the ring on His finger’ reported by Ibn Majah (449).
[8] Meaning not seeking help with the actual washing and wiping of the body parts. As for someone pouring water for the one performing wudu, or providing water for them then there is nothing disliked in this, even if it was requested.
Al-Bukhari said in his Sahih (1/248 with the Sharh of Ibn Hajar) that: The Messenger of Allah (s) departed from Arafah came to al-Shuab and relieved himself. Usamah s
aid: I poured water for Him whilst He performed wudu…’.
[9] The Messenger of Allah (s) said, “My nation will come with bright streaks of light from the traces of ablution…If one can lengthen his streak of light, he should do so’, reported by al-Bukhari (1/45).
What is meant by lengthening the streaks of light is going beyond the obligatory area to be washed in wudu.
[10] Due to His (s) words: ‘If one performs and perfects his ablution and prays two rak’ah with his heart and face (completely on his prayer), Paradise becomes his’, reported by Muslim (17).
[11] Because the leaving of a disliked act is superior to the performance of a desired act.

It-haf: Sunnah Acts of Wudu -Pt.3

Its Recommended (Sunnah) Acts[1]:
– Meaning of washing (wudu)

The intention[2],
– It is by intending to remove the state of ritual impurity, or to be able to offer the prayer, or an act of worship which can only be performed whilst being in a state of ritual purity. One forms the intention at the time of the washing of the face[3], and its place is the heart.

the tasmiyah,
– Starting the washing (wudu) with the name of Allah (taala), before the istinja and after it, however not when one is uncovered nor in a place where there is filth present[4]
If a person performing wudu forgets to mention it at the beginning but then recalls and mentions it in during the washing (wudu), they will be regarded as not having performed the recommended act, this is different to the ruling of mentioning the tasmiyah during the course of a meal[5] However if one forgets to mention the tasmiyah at the beginning they should still utter it if they recall it during the washing (wudu).
Its wording is[6]: Bismillah al-Adheem, Wal-Hamdulilah ala Deen al-Islam

washing the hands up to the wrists three times[7]
– Both before and after istinja, whether awakening from sleep or not. It is also recommended to wash them when washing the arms

the toothstick[8],
– Meaning its use, it is desirable (mustahab) that it is with the right hand, that the toothstick be flexible, a hands length and thickness of the small finger. The sunnah method to hold it is that: the right little finger is at the bottom of the toothstick, with the other three fingers being above it and the thumb being below the top of the toothstick as is reported from Ibn Masud[9] (ra).
If a toothstick is not available then the use of the finger or cloth is sufficient and of equal reward.[10]
Note: It is desirable to to use the toothstick in a number of places: When the teeth are yellow, to change the odour of the mouth , when awakening from sleep, when standing up to pray, when wishing to recite to the Quran[11]

washing the mouth,
– Meaning water reaching all of the mouth

rinsing the nose,
– By the water reaching the soft part of the nose
Note: washing the mouth and rinsing the nose are two emphasized sunnahs which are based on five sunnahs, namely: order, cleaning three times, taking new water[12], performing these with the right hand and thoroughly washing and rinsing when not fasting.
The limits for them in the washing of the mouth is that the water reaches the head of the throat, and in rinsing that it goes past the soft part of the nose

combing the beard
– For other than the one in a state of ihram with a scoop of water, the method of performing it is to enter the fingers in the beard going from the bottom to the top, this is after the washing of the face three times[13], the back of the hand is faced towards the neck

– Rubbing in between the

– of the hands and toes after washing the body part three times, the method of its performance with the hands is to interlace them, and with the feet is to rub with the small finger of the left hand starting with the small toe of the right foot and working all the way to the left foot.[14]

washing three times,
– The body parts that are to be washed, meaning to repeat the washing three times. This excludes wiping which is not to be performed three times.

wiping the whole head
– Once covering the whole head, it is a sunnah to start with the front part[15]

and ears,
– After wiping the head with the remaining moisture, the insides of the ears with the index finger, and the outer part with the thumbs, if no moisture remains on the hands after the wiping of the head then he may take new water for it.

– As mentioned in the revealed texts, such that the he washes that which was mentioned first in the verse

– It is the washing of the second body part before the first becoming dry

– Which is the passing of the hand over the body part whilst washing it[16]

[1] An emphasized (muakkadah) recommended act is one that which the Prophet (s) regularly performed and only left on occasion. As for that which He (s) did not regularly perform then it called desirable (mandub). See Maraqi al-Falah (p.38-39 with al-Hashiyah)
[2] It has been defined by some of the scholars as being the definite resolve and focus in the heart to perform an act, see Maraqi al-Falah (p.44 with al-Hashiyah).
[3] Ibn Nujaim in al-Ashbah wa al-Nazair (p.44) mentions that the basis for intentions are that they should be formed at the beginning of the act of worship, with regards to the washing (wudu) some scholars have said that it should be formed when washing the hands so as to gain the reward for the other recommended acts which are performed before the washing of the face.
[4] It is apparent that what is meant is that a person utters the tasmiyah before removing their clothing in order to relieve themselves. This is when a person relieves themselves in a place other than a bathroom. As for the bathroom a person would utter the tasmiyah before entering it, if he forgets to utter it in the beginning in either of these two cases he is to say it in his heart and not with his tongue, honouring the name of Allah (taala).
[5] Because the act of washing (wudu) is regarded as one whole act, whilst when eating each mouthful is regarded as a separate action. See Maraqi al-Falah (p.40)
[6] In Fath al-Qadeer it is mentioned that this wordin
g is reported from the early muslims (salaf), and it has also been said that it is reported from the Prophet (s).
[7] The evidence for the washing of the hands prior at the beginning of the wudu being recommended (sunnah) is the hadith ‘….’
The washing of the hands is a sunnah for all those who wish to make wudu, the condition of when waking up mentioned in the hadith is based on the common situation of a person performing wudu for the Fajr prayer after waking up.
[8] It is a recommended (sunnah) act due to His (s) words: ‘Were it not that I would be overburdening my community I would have ordered them to use a tooth-stick with each wudu’. Reported by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih and was graded Sahih by al-Hakim. The hadith is also reported with the slight variation of wording “with each prayer” which is related in the six books of hadith
Imam al-Aini mentions that the scholars have differed over the toothstick whether it is from the sunan of wudu or the prayer or the religion, the last view is regarded as being the strongest and is reported from Imam Abu Hanifah. There are some hadith which support this view. See al-Binayah fi Sharh al-Hidayah (1/86-87) and Umdah al-Qari (6/181).
[9] Abdullah bin Masud (d.32 AH), one of the major companions, from the people of Makkah and early converts to Islam. He was one of the trustworthy servants of the Messenger of Allah (s). He was put in charge of the public treasury in al-Kufah, he then returned to al-Madinah during the khilafah of Uthman bin Affan (ra), passing away at around sixty years of age. See al-Alaam (4/137)
[10] the Messenger of Allah r said: ‘The finger suffices in place of the toothstick’, reported by al-Bayhaqi (1/40) from Anas with various wordings.
[11] In the Hashiyah Ibn Abidin it is mentioned quoting from al-Miraj that there is no specified number of times one should clean the mouth with a toothstick, rather the toothstick should be used until the person feels that the mouth is clean, it is desirable (mustahab) that it be three times with three scoops of water.
[12] Meaning taking new water, three times for washing the mouth, three times for rinsing the nose due to that which is reported by Abu Dawud (139) and al-Tabarani that the Messenger of Allah (s) performed wudu, he washed his mouth three times, and rinsed his nose three times, taking new water each time.
[13] Anas said “When the Prophet r performed wudu, he would take a handful of water and put it under his jaws, and pass it through his beard. And said: This is what my Lord ordered me to do”. Reported by Abu Dawud (145).

[14] Ibn al-Hummam in Fath al-Qadeer (1/20) said that this method is not a sunnah in of itself, rather it happens to be a way that the rubbing between the toes was performed.
Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah r said: “When you perform wudu then rub between your fingers and toes”, reported by al-Tirmidhi (39) who graded it Hasan.
[15] Due to the hadith of bin Zaid bin Asim which contains “Then inserted His hand and brought it out and wiped his head both front and back with his hands”, reported by the six, see Talkhis al-Habir (1/123,124).
Al-Zaylai commented in Tabyin al-Haqaiq that (1/5) that there is some discussion surrounding the method of wiping the head, the more apparent view is that the hands and the fingers are placed at the front of the head and are passed all the way up to the neck in a way which covers the whole head, then the ears are wiped with the fingers.
Ibn al-Hummam in Fath al-Qadeer (1/12) said that the not placing of the fingers or hands in some parts of the wiping so that they maybe used later has no basis in the sunnah, see also Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (1/89).
[16] Imam Maliks view was that rubbing and continuity were obligatory in washing (wudu) and bathing (ghusl), he is the only one of the Imams to hold this opinion. The evidence for them being sunnah is that Allah (taala) has ordered for washing in a general/absolute sense without conditioning continuity nor rubbing. See Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/56).

It-haf: Obligatory Acts of Wudu -Pt.2

Salam, another addition alhumdulilah to the fiqh series I hope to put up Inshallah. As mentioned previously, its from It-haf al-Talib by Sh. Abu Bakr al-Mulla, with explanatory notes taken from his and Sh. Yahya al-Mulla notes.

The Book of Purification
– The conditions for purification being compulsory (wajib) are eight in number[1]:

1) Sanity
2) Maturity
3) Islam
4) Ability to use a sufficient amount of purifying water
5) Being in a state of ritual impurity (hadath)
6) Absence of menstruation
7) Absence of post birth bleeding
8) Time constraint

The conditions for it being valid/correct are three[2]:
1) Covering the area to be washed with purifiying water
2) Absence of that which negates it such as menstruation and post birth bleeding
3) The removal of that which prevents water reaching the body[3]

The pillars (arkan) of washing (wudu)
– A pillar (rukn) is an obligatory act which exists within the form of an act of worship, as for a condition (shart) it exists outside of this act of worship. Obligatory (fard) is a more general term and applies to them both.

are four:
– Due to His (taala) words: ‘O you who believe, when you stand for prayer then wash your faces, your hands up to the elbows, wipe your heads, and your feet up to the ankles’ [al-Maida:6]

Washing the face,
– Washing is the flowing of the water over a body part such that atleast two drops drip according to the strongest opinion[4]
The definition of the face lengthwise is from the top of the forehead where the hairlines usually begins to below the chin[5] and width wise that which is between the two earlobes[6]. It is also compulsory to wash the corner of the eyes[7] and that which remains apparent from the lips when they are closed. Likewise the area which is between the beard and the ear.
It is not compulsory to wash the inside of the eyes[8]
As for facial hair: if it is copious and covers the skin then it is compulsory to wash the outer part of it[9]. As for the facial hair which is light then it is compulsory for water to reach the skin beneath it.

washing the hands including the elbows,
– Meaning from the hands, including the arms all the way up to and including the elbows

wiping a quarter of the head[10],
– The area of the head to be wiped is that which is above the ears, from any of the four sides of the head, with new water.
In the case of rainwater dripping on the head and covering a quarter of it then it would be regarded as valid, likewise wiping the head with moisture/wetness remaining on the hands after having washed a body part is valid, however wiping the head with moisture on the hands after having wiped another body part is not valid except if the hands are wet such that water drips from them.[11]
If someone wipes their head and then shaves their hair then they are not required to wipe the head again.

washing the feet including the ankles
– The ankles are the bones protruding from the sides of the feet

[1] The conditions for washing (wudu) becoming compulsory means that when all of the above are found in a person, then they it becomes compulsory for them to purify themselves. In the sacred law a condition (shart) is that which the existence of something is dependent upon. See Sharh Muniyah al-Musalli (p.12).
[2] The conditions for validity/correctness means that the purification is correct when these conditions are met. Menstruation and post birth bleeding are mentioned in both sets of conditions, in the first (conditions for purification being compulsory) they are present to indicate upon whom purification is compulsory, and here they are to indicate that this compulsory purification has been performed correctly. See Rad al-Muhtar (1/86).
[3] Such that if something the breadth of a hair or head of a needle was covering the skin area to be washed then the washing is not valid. An example of this is nail polish worn by women which creates a barrier over the nail and prevents water reaching the nails. As for dyeing with henna then there is no harm in this, because it does not leave a substance which prevents water reaching the skin.
[4] It is apparent that if someone washes an amount such that only two drops of water drip then this will not be regarded as being insufficient washing of the body part. It also possible that this definition of washing is a clarification of the amount which would make the washing valid/correct and therefore limiting oneself to washing by which only two drops of water drip is disliked (makruh). See Hashiyah al-Tahtawi ala al-Dur (1/61).
[5] Meaning the bottom of the bone upon which the lower teeth are. See al-Dur al-Mukhtar with al-Hashiyah (1/71)
[6] Te earlobes are soft part of the ear at its bottom
[7] Mulla Ali al-Qari in his Sharh Mishkat al-Masabih (1/317) mentions that it is referring here to the corner of the eye adjacent to the nose and the substances which accumulate in the corner of the eyes.
[8] Rather it is not recommended to wash the inside of the eyes due to the harm involved, such that the scholars have mentioned that if a person was to apply antimony to the eyes which was impure, even then washing the insides of the eyes would not be compulsory. See Rad al-Muhtar (1/90).
The author of al-Binayah (1/91) mentioned that those of the companions such as Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar who did wash inside their eyes suffered problems with their eyesight in old age.
[9] This excludes the facial hair which hangs from the face such as the beard. See Ibn Abidin (1/72)
[10] A quarter of the head has been specified as being the obligatory amount to be wiped due to that which is reporte
d by Muslim (81) that Mughriah bin Shubah said that the Prophet (s): ‘Performed wudu and wiped his forelock and his turban and his socks’. The forelock is front part of the head, which is a quarter of the head. For a more detailed discussion refer to Fath Bab al-Inayah of Mulla Ali al-Qari (1/44).
[11] The difference between the moisture/wetness remaining after wiping and washing is that water by its mere contact with a washed limb does not become used aslong as it does not flow, as ritual impurity is not removed except by the water flowing over an area. With the case of wiping the waters coming in contact with the skin of the head becomes used, as wiping is defined as the water coming in contact with the skin and does not have to flow in order to purify. See al-Siayah fi Sharh al-Wiqayah of al-Luknawi (1/76).