Sh. Murabit al-Hajj: Book Cover


Alhumdulillah I discovered this precious gem with a young Mauritanian scholar (Sayyidi Yahya al-Shinqiti) in the small village of Baynunah in Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Sayyidi Yahya also possessed a hand written manuscript of the work (scribed by himself in Mauritania I believe). May Allah (the Exalted) help us to continue benefitting from our Shuyukh who are guiding stars in the dark night of confusion of this age. Wassalam


Wasilah al-Talab: The Major Sins

The cover page for Wasilah al-Talab in the pocket sized ‘Thalatha Mutun’ booklet from al-Ahsa

Note: Before I was about to post the message below I rang Sheikh Yahya in al-Ahsa, he informed me that they were working on editing Sheikh Abdullah al-Mulla’s commentary to Wasilah al-Talab! May Allah (the exalted) facilitate its completion. The name of the Pakistani scholar was Sheikh Afdal who resided in Lahore.


As mentioned previously, Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Mulla authored a number of texts, two of them are very similair in content, It-haf al-Talib (which is part of a serialised translation on this blog) and Wasilah al-Talab. The latter text was taught by Sheikh Muhammad al-Mulla to some of his students, and was normally completed in a short space of time. This is the text which was translated into Urdu by a student of Sheikh Muhammad when he returned back to Pakistan (Inshallah am trying to get hold of a copy).
Some of us were also fortunate to read this text in al-Ahsa for the purposes of barakah and clarfication of certain passages with Sheikh Rayed al-Mulla. Please find the following excerpt from the text, May Allah (the Exalted) protect us from all of these:

The Major Sins

From the major sins which make the one who perpetrates them a fasiq are: Killing unlawfully, fornication, theft, consuming interest, false accusations of adultery, drinking intoxicants and abandoning the prayer. Know that you disobey Allah with your body, and it is a blessing from Allah upon you, and a trust with you.

The bodyparts are seven: The eye, ear, tongue, stomach, private part, hand and foot.

As for the eye, safeguard it from looking at the unlawful.

As for the ear, safeguard it from listening to backbiting and lying.

As for the tongue, safeguard it from backbiting,lying, arguing and its like.

As for the stomach, safeguard it from the haram and doubtful.

As for the private part, safeguard it from that which Allah has made forbidden to you.

As for the hands, safeguard them from harming any of the creation, or to use them in that which is not lawful.

As for the feet, safeguard them from walking to that which is detested.

As for the sins of the heart, they are many, the principle ones are four, being:envy, showing off, arrogance and vanity

As for envy it is: to love the removal of anothers blessings

As for showing off it is: to seek a rank/station in the hearts of the creation with an action

As for arrogance it is: to despise another

As for vanity it is: to look to the self with the eye of greatness

Zamzam And Evidences

Since a young age I was told that when drinking the blessed zamzam water, that I should face the qiblah and stand. Back in 2006 when I was in al-Khobar, the “5 star” Saad Hospital, during Ramadan, kindly placed containers of zamzam outside their hospital mosque for everyone to benefit from. A dear salafi colleague and myself took advantage of this opportunity regularly, however it was not long before I was told politely that my act of standing up went against the authentic hadith. My reply was something along the lines of “ermm, Ill check it up”, and I carried on drinking zamzam water standing and facing the qiblah (Don’t worry they realised I was a lost cause).
Anyways alhumdulilah, as has often been the case, these practises passed down have some kind of basis in the sunnah, so for the two etiquettes mentioned above please find the following evidences:

Facing the Qiblah

Ibn Abi Mulaykah reported: “A man came to Ibn `Abbas. He asked the man, ‘Where are you coming from?’ The man replied: ‘I drank from Zamzam.’ Ibn `Abbas asked him, ‘Did you drink from it as you are supposed to?’ “The man asked: ‘O Ibn `Abbas, how am I supposed to drink it?’ Ibn `Abbas replied: ‘When you drink its water you should face the direction of the Qiblah, remember Allah, drink it in three breaths, drink as much as you can, and praise and thank Allah when you finish drinking.’ The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “A major difference between us and the hypocrites is that they do not drink their fill of the water of Zamzam.”
-Sunan al-Darqutni (2/288) Ibn Majah (2/1017) Al-Busiri said in his Zawaid: Its chain is Sahih

Standing Up

There is a difference of opinion amongst the scholars regarding this issue. A group of the Hanafi scholars such as: al-Haskafi in al-Dur al-Mukhtar (1/129),al-Luknawi in Umdah al-Riayah (1/267) and Ibn Abidin in his Hashiyah (1/129) mention that the strongest position is that one should stand when drinking zamzam.

Their evidence is that which is reported in al-Bukhari (3/492) and Sahih Muslim (3/1601) that: Ibn Abbas (ra) said: I poured zamzam for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give Him peace), and He drank from it whilst standing.

They therefore argue that drinking zamzam whilst standing is the established practice of the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace).

Note: There is a valid difference of opinion on this issue, so if we do see someone drinking zamzam sitting we should understand that they are acting according to the other valid opinion on this issue.

And with Allah is success, We ask Him (the Exalted) to give us the opportunity to drink our fill of Zamzam whilst gazing at His sacred House. Ameen.

Sawlatiyyah- Sh. Muhammad al-Mulla

-Praising the One who created man, and ennobled him with knowledge and clarity. Salutations and blessings upon the choicest of His creation, the Master of the children of Adnan, upon whom was revealed ‘Recite and your Lord is most generous’.
To proceed: the loftiest of objectives is the adornment with knowledge and embellishment with manners (adab) accompanied by following that which has been ordered and leaving that which has been prohibited. For one of those who who kept his eyes awake in its attainment, and spent him time in knowing and completing, the striving student, Muhammad bin Allamah Abi Bakr al-Mulla al-Ahsai. He received and studied the sciences mentioned above in our school ‘Al-Sawlatiyyah al-Hindiyyah’ in Makkah the protected, established by the erudite and righteous, the deceased Mawlana al-Sheikh Rahmatullah bin Khalil al-Rahman al-Hindi. Appreciating his efforts this certificate was awarded to him from the the school so that reliance may be placed on it. And by Allah is success.
Salam, the above is a very rough translation of the meaning of the main paragraph of the above certificate. Some of us went through a basic reading of the whole of Mukhtasar al-Quduri last year with Sheikh Bandar Abdullah al-Mulla in the Dawsari masjid located in the the Gold Belt area of al-Khobar. Sheikh Bandar is credited (Allah reward him) with helping us in meeting the hanafi scholars from al-Ahsa belonging to the Mulla family. He also gifted us with a number of works in fiqh which can only be described as ‘Tarjuman al-Qalb’.
After the seminar on the four madhabs in al-Ahsa which took place in Dammam, and at which Sheikh Bandar presented a brief history of the hanafi school, he gifted a book to me by his father in law on the history of the different schools in al-Ahsa. The work contained amongst other things a copy of Sheikh Muhammad al-Mulla’s certificate of graduation from Madrassa al-Sawlatiyyah in Makkah. I had been meaning to scan it and place it on the internet for others to benefit from, but was delighted find that someone else had already done so.
This certificate emphasizes the important point that tasawwuf is not divorced or alien to the studying and teaching of sacred knowledge. This is what scholars such as Sheikh Muhammad al-Mulla dedicated their life to and this is what they passed on to their students, and this is what we witnessed ourselves and were told by them.
We have recorded evidence of Sheikh Abu Bakr (Sheikh Muhammads father) being presented with poetry written by his students expressing their happiness and joy at the return of their teachers son from the Hijaz after completing his studies.
Sheikh Muhammad al-Mulla’s son Sheikh Yahya mentioned to us that his father was: ‘An ocean in both outward sacred knowledge and tasawwuf’.
May Allah (the exalted) have mercy on all those mentioned in this post.

Kaydani: Invalidators of Prayer -Pt.14

Salam, We have reached the end of the book and thus this is the last in the series of posts of this classical fiqh manual. Is this the first complete text in hanafi fiqh with a commentary in English to be posted online..? I know there are excerpts from works such as Muktasar al-Quduri and Nur al-Idah elsewhere in cyberspace, however it is not the complete text, nor are they annotated in detail. Anyhow, I hope this series is as useful to the reader as it was for me whilst working on it, it is still a rough draft and can be improved without doubt. We ask Allah (the Exalted) to accept this from us, and to bless us with afiyah, tawfiq and tayseer.
Salutations and Blessing be Upon our Master and Teacher Muhammad and all those that follow Him with goodness till the Last day, and all praise is for Allah (the Exalted) in the beginning and the end.
Chapter Eight: The Invalidators
They are in general five in number:
1- Any form of human speech[1] whether haqiqi or hukmi[2]
2- Laughter[3]
3- Excessive movement without it being to rectify[4]
4- Leaving out any of the obligatory (fard) elements without an excuse, even if it occurs without his choice[5]
5- To deliberately invalidate ones wudu[6]
[1] Even if accidental, and even if a small or large amount. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/8-9), Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/301), Rad al-Muhtar (1/414)
[2] What is meant by human speech is that which is can be asked from another human being, and that one asks Allah (the most high) for this in the form of a supplication (dua) such as saying “O Lord give me 100 dinars” this is what is called kalam al-hukmi, i.e. It maybe in the form of a dua to Allah (the most high) but it is something which can be asked from another human being and is therefore regarded as human speech. An example of something which cannot be asked from another human being is supplicating: ‘O lord forgive me my sins’, this does not invalidate the prayer as another human being cannot be asked to forgive your sins. Al-Jawhar
[3] The definition of laughter is that it be audible to the person praying and not the person praying next to him, this invalidates the prayer but not the wudu.
Smiling invalidates neither the prayer nor wudu.
Loud laughter is that which is audible to the one praying and those around him, it invalidates both the prayer and the wudu, however with the condition that it be from an adult who is awake in a prayer consisting of bowing and prostrating. It is the same if the loud laughter was deliberate or accidental. Sharh al-Wiqayah (p.90) Tabyin al-Haqaiq (1/11) Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/68) al-Ikhtiyar (1/18)
[4] What is meant by rectifying is walking to make wudu if ones wudu is invalidated during prayer, or to kill a snake etc. The definition of excessive movement is that which the one looking at the person praying would think that they were not praying. This view has been adopted by the generality of the scholars and was chosen as being the strongest view by al-Haskafi in al-Dur al-Muntaqa (1/120), al-Sarkhasi in al-Mabsut (1/191) al-Kasani in al-Badai (1/241). This was also the position of the author of al-Tabyin, the author of al-Muhit and Sadr al-Shahid. See the al-Shurunbulali’s notes to al-Durar (1/104)
[5] Such as leaving one of the obligatory (fard) elements of the prayer without reason, such as an ill person not standing due to being unable to do so. Likewise an illiterate person not reciting the Quran within the prayer, the prayer is not invalidated due to his having a valid reason. However the prayer is invalidated if it occurs suddenly without intending the missing of an obligatory act, an example being: a person is praying and some filth stains the clothing and cannot be removed immediately. Al-Jawhar
[6] This is before sitting for the length of the tasahhud, and is by deliberately passing wind or urinating. As for after having sat for the length of the tashahhud it is defined as exiting the prayer with ones own action and does not invalidate but rather the prayer is completed. However exiting the prayer with the salam has been left out which is wajib, therefore if the one praying has invalidated their wudu, they go to perform wudu and return back to build upon their prayer, the scholars have however set down ten conditions for this, details of which can be found in Dur al-Mukhtar and Rad al-Muhtar (1/403), Sharh al-Wiqayah (p.158-159) and Tabyin al-Haqaiq (1/145-146).

Kaydani: Permissible Acts in Prayer -Pt.13

*Chapter Seven: The Permissible Acts
They are eleven in total:
The general are eight:
1- Looking with the corner of the eye without turning the face[1]
2- Levelling the place of prostration once or twice due to a reason
3- Killing a snake even if it requires handling[2]
4- That there be in the mouth dirhams and dinars such that they do not prevent from the sunnah recitation
5- That there be in the hand that which does not prevent the sunnah method of placing (the hand)[3]
6- Reciting the Quran in order[4]
7- Adjusting the garment so that it does not stick to the body when bowing (ruku)[5]
8- Reciting the end of a surah in a unit, and the end of another surah in another unit according to the more correct opinion[6]

The specific are three:
1- Repeating a surah in a unit of the optional prayer[7]
2- To support oneself next to a wall or pillar in the optional prayer, even if without reason
3- The Imam observing those behind him when unsure as to stand if he has stood, and its like[8]

[1] There are three scenarios, each having a different ruling:
One: Permissible: It is to look left and right with the corner of the eyes without moving the neck
Two: Disliked: It is to look by turning the neck left and right
Three: Invalidating: It is to turn the chest away from the qiblah. Al-Tabyin (1/163), Hashiyah al-Shalabi (1/163), Rad al-Muhtar (1/163)
[2] Because it is allowed for the one praying to ward off from himself that which disturbs him in his prayer. This being one of those things. It is said: it is allowed if one is able to kill the snake with a single strike, as for if requiring handling and a number of strikes the prayer is restarted because this is excessive movement. However the stronger opinion seems to be that this is allowed for the one praying. It is similar to walking to make wudu after invalidating ones wudu in whilst praying, and drawing water from a well and washing. Al-Mabsut (1/194)
[3] Meaning that there is in the hand something such as prayer beads, a stick and its like and it does not prevent the one praying from placing the hands according to the sunnah method when standing , bowing, prostrating and sitting. Al-Jawhar
[4] According to the order of the verses and chapters found in the Quran. One can join between surahs in one unit as long as one recites in order. Qadi Khan said: ‘there is no harm in reciting the Quran in the prayer in order, as is known from the practice of the companions (may Allah be pleased with them)’. Al-Jawhar, al-Shurunbulaliyah (1/111)
[5] It is done so that the form of the body may not be apparent. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/21), Rad al-Muhtar (1/641)
[6] Al-Shurunbulali said in Hashiyah al-Durar (1/111) : ‘it is not disliked which is the correct opinion’.
[7] Al-Halabi said in Sharh al-Muniyah: ‘if a single verse is repeated a number of times, if in the optional prayer being offered alone it is not disliked, in the obligatory it is disliked except when due to a reason or one has forgot’. Al-Jawhar
[8] This is by the Imam looking with the corner of his eyes to those praying behind him, this is when he is in doubt whether as to stand or sit due to not recalling how many units he has prayed. Therefore by his observing if he sees those behind him standing up he also stands. Al-Jawhar

Kaydani: Disliked Acts in Prayer -Pt.12

The specific are seventeen:
1- the Imam waiting in the prayer for the one whose footsteps he heard[1]
2- lengthening the second unit more than the first in the obligatory prayers[2]
3- The Imam and follower halting at a verse regarding mercy and punishment, this applies to the munfarid in the obligatory prayers only[3]
4- Prostrating on the coil of the turban[4]
5- Men pressing their thighs against the stomach[5]
6- Likewise their placing their arms on the ground
7- Removing a shirt or cap, likewise wearing them with slight movement[6]
8- The Imam lengthening the prayer such that it is difficult for the congregation[7]
9- The Imam shortening the congregational prayer due their being in a hurry[8]
10- The Imam referring to the congregation to prompt him after he has recited the amount which is sufficient for the prayer[9]
11- Reciting loudly in the optional prayers of the day[10]
12- The Imam reciting a verse of prostration in a silent prayer except at the end of the surah[11]
13- Repeating a verse out of happiness or sadness in the fard without an excuse except in the optional and sunnah prayers[12]
14- Repeating a surah in one unit of the obligatory prayer[13]
15- Men’s prayer with the sleeves raised up to the elbows [14]
16- The follower saying at a verse of encouragement and warning: Sadaqallah Taala wa Ballaghat Rusuluhu[15]
17- Supporting oneself against a wall, pillar and its like without excuse in other than the optional prayers[16]
[1] If the Imam is in the bowing position and hears the footsteps of someone entering the masjid does he lengthen the bowing so that they maybe able to catch the unit of prayer? Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with him) said: I asked Abu Hanifah and Ibn Abi Laylah about this and they both regarded it as disliked. Abu Hanifah said: I fear a great matter, meaning shirk, for him. Hisham reports from Muhammad that he disliked it and from Abu Muti’ that he saw no harm in it. Abul Qasim al-Saffar said: If the man is rich then it is not permissible to wait for him, if he is poor then it is permissible. The jurist Abu Layth said: If the Imam knows the person approaching then he does not wait for him, because it resembles favouring him, and if he does not know the one approaching him there is no harm (in waiting for him), because this is helping others with an act of worship. Badai al-Sanai (1/209)
[2] It is reported from Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with him) that: The first unit is lengthened more than the second unit in the fajr prayer only. It is disliked to lengthen the second unit more than the first unit with more than two verses. Muhammad bin Hasan al-Shaybani said: I like it that the first unit is lengthened more then the second unit in all of the prayers. Al-Tabyin (1/130), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/542)
[3] Meaning ceasing recitation or listening in order to supplicate for paradise when reaching a verse relating to the mercy of Allah (the most high) and seeking refuge when passing by a verse relating to the hellfire. It is disliked to pause and supplicate because in the prayer one should be listening to the recitation of the Quran, and that Allah (the most high) has promised mercy to those who listen and stay silent when the Quran is recited. Also the answer of supplications in not definite, especially in the case of one who is busy in supplicating and not listening to the Qurans recitation as was mentioned in al-Bahr (1/364).
In the work Minhah al-Khaliq (1/364) it is mentioned that the in the optional prayer the one praying by himself may supplicate if he wishes.
[4] This is disliked if it took place without need such as in the case of the ground being extremely hot or cold. If the coil of the turban was on the head as opposed to the forehead, and prostration was made on it without the forehead coming into contact with the ground the prayer is not correct. This was the position of Ibn Nujaim in al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/337), al-Shurunbulali in Maraqi al-Falah (p.337), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/500). However there are other opinions in the madhab which state that the prayer would still be correct. This was mentioned in al-Badai (1/210), al-Kanz (1/117), Multaqa al-Abhur (1/97).
[5] Except if the row is crowded in which case it is not disliked, because the one praying should try not to cause any trouble to those praying next to him. Al-Jawhar
[6] However if it is with excessive movement it invalidates the prayer
[7] Meaning that the Imam increases beyond the sunnah amount as has been mentioned previously. And because this leads to them losing the concentration in their prayer, it is apparent that it is makruh tahrimi. Al-Jawhar
[8] Meaning the Imam hurrying such that the sunnah elements of the prayer are not performed. Al-Jawhar
[9] In this scenario the prayer of the Imam and the who prompts him is not invalidated, even though it is preferable not to prompt the Imam after he has recited the amount of Quran which is sufficient for the prayer. Al-Umdah (1/191), Rad al-Muhtar (1/418), Majma al-Anhur (1/119)
[10] This also applies to the Imam, this is because the optional prayers of the day are regarded as being like the obligatory prayers of the day which are all offered silently in congregation. As for the optional prayer during the night, then the one praying by
himself has a choice in reciting aloud or silently. Al-Tabyin (1/127), Majma al-Anhur (1/103)
[11] Meaning in the prayers which are performed silently in congregation, except if the verse of prostration is at the end of the portion of Quran recited, and then they all bow, as it is included in the bowing.
[12] If the verse is repeated due to a reason such as to recite it properly due to not having recited it correctly the first time then it is not disliked. Likewise it is not disliked to repeat them in the optional and sunnah prayers even without a reason, because this has been reported from a group of the pious early Muslims. Al-Jawhar
[13] Likewise in two units if able to recite another surah, if unable to recite another surah then it is not disliked to repeat it in the second unit due to necessity. This all relates to the obligatory prayers as opposed to the optional prayers in which it is not disliked to repeat the surah in a unit or two units. Al-Jawhar
[14] This ruling also applies to the area of the arms leading up to the elbows. This is when the sleeves have been rolled up before the prayer and then the prayer has begun. As for rolling up the sleeves whilst in prayer then this would invalidate the prayer as it is excessive movement. Al-Shurunbulaliyah (1/106), Durar al-Hukkam (1/106),al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/25), Rad al-Muhtar (1/640)
[15] Because the one praying behind the Imam should silent and listening.
[16] Because it entails a lack of khushu without a valid reason such as illness in the obligatory and compulsory prayers. Al-Jawhar al-Kulli

Kaydani: Disliked Acts in Prayer – Pt.11

*Chapter Six: Disliked acts within the prayer
They are fifty nine
The general are forty two:
1- Repeating the takbir[1]
2- Counting the verses and their like with the hand[2]
3- Placing the hands on the hips[3]
4- All that is from the behaviour of tyrants[4]
5- Tanahnuh without excuse even if without letters[5]
6- Clearing mucus/phlegm from the throat[6]
7- Blowing which cannot be heard[7]
8- Holding dirhams and its like in the mouth such that it does not prevent from reciting[8]
9- To have the head raised whilst bowing[9]
10- Swallowing that which is between the teeth if a small amount[10]
11- Leaving any of the sunnahs
12- Completing the recitation when bowing[11]
13- The invocations (adhkar) being recited in the movements[12]
14- Placing the hands before the knees on the ground to prostrate without an excuse[13]
15- Raising the hands after the knees when standing
16- Squatting like a dog[14]
17- Covering the mouth without being overcome by yawning
18- Closing the eyes[15]
19- Moving stones except if it is not possible to prostrate, he may move them once or twice[16]
20- Wiping dust and sweat from the forehead before finishing
21- Raising the garment
22- Yawning[17]
23- Stretching the arms[18]
24- Cracking the fingers[19]
25- Seeking rest/resting in the prayer[20]
26- Spreading out the fingers in other than the bowing[21]
27- Reciting quickly[22]
28- Not having the head level with the back when bowing[23]
29- Taking three consecutive steps without reason, even if pausing after each step[24]
30- Swinging to the right and left[25]
31- Killing a louse with less than three (strikes)[26]
32- Likewise burying it[27]
33- Spitting out saliva[28]
34- Removing the leather sock (khuff) with slight movements[29]
35- Smelling fragrance[30]
36- To cool oneself with a cloth or fan with less than three (movements)
37- Specifying chapters for particular prayers such that none others are recited[31]
38- Combining between two chapters by leaving one between them in a single unit[32]
39- Moving from one verse to another even if there is a surah between them[33]
40- Preceding an earlier surah to a later surah, even if in two units[34]
41- Tasmiyah before every surah in every unit[35]
42- Holding a child without excuse[36]
[1] Such as saying at the beginning or when moving from position to another: “Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar” because it is not to be said twice. It is regarded as being makruh tanzihi because there is no evidence mentioning that it is prohibited. Al-Jawhar
[2] There is a difference regarding counting with the finger or whilst holding a piece of string. As for pressing down with the fingertips and keeping count in ones heart there is agreement that it is not disliked. The issue mentioned here is makruh tanzihi because it is not from the actions of the prayer which break ones concentration. More details can be found in al-Luknawi’s Nuzhah al-Dhikr (p.65-75).
[3] This is by the placing of the hands on the hip, because it entails the leaving of the sunnah method of placing the hands.
[4] Meaning any kind of action which is the behaviour of arrogant tyrants with people such as the raising of the garment when prostrating so that they may not become soiled. And such as placing a cloth on the ground to prostrate on out of arrogance and without a reason. Al-Jawhar
[5] If one is overcome by it and no letters are emitted then it is disliked. If letters are emitted then it invalidates the prayer, because it is regarded as speech. If it is due to a reason it does not invalidate the prayer because of the impossibility of avoiding it. Al-Tabyin (1/155)
[6] The term in Arabic is ‘tanakhum’. It takes the same ruling as clearing the throat, such that if two or more letters are omitted then the prayer is invalidated. In one manuscript of the text it mentions ‘takhattum’ which is to wear a ring within the prayer with slight movements. Al-Dur al-Mukhtar and Rad al-Muhtar (1/652)
[7] It is the emitting of air from the mouth. Al-Kasani said in al-Badai (1/216): ‘it is disliked to blow whilst in the prayer because it is not one of the actions of the prayer and there is no need for it, as opposed to breathing which is necessary. Is the prayer invalidated by blowing? If it cannot be heard it does not invalidate, if it can be heard then it does invalidate’.
[8] If they prevent the uttering of the letters it is not permissible as mentioned in al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/35). The statement of Qadi Khan that: ‘there is no harm that one prays whilst there is in the mouth dirhams or dinars which do not prevent recitation’ indicates that it is makruh tanzihi. Rad al-Muhtar (1/641)
[9] Meaning having the head higher than the back whilst bowing, because this is a leaving of the sunnah of having the back totally straight. Similar to this is the lowering and tucking in of the head whilst bowing. Al-Jawhar
[10] Because it is not possible to avoid it except if is a large amount. The scholars differentiated between a large and small amount, they said a large amount was anything greater in size than a chickpea. Al-Tabyin (1/159)
[11] See al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/333), Rad al-Muhtar (1/473). Al-Nablusi said in al-Jawhar: ‘It is disliked to complete the compulsory or recommended recitation (of the Quran) whilst bowing, as for if the obligatory recitation is completed when bowing the prayer is invalidated’. It is mentioned in al-Badai (1/218) that: ‘It is disliked to recite in other than the standing position’
[12] Meaning the invocations (adhkar) of bowing and prostrating occurring in the movements of the prayer. For example one completes the tasbih of bowing whilst rising up from it to the standing position. Similar to this is the reciting of the takbir whilst bowing and prostrating. All of these are makruh tanzihi as they are not what has been mentioned in the sunnah. Al-Jawhar
[13] Because this is not what has been reported to us from the sunnah.
[14] This is by sitting on the posterior whilst raising up the knees
[15] Because it negates concentration and is regarded as a type of fidgeting. The sunnah is for the one praying to look at the place of his prostration, therefore by closing the eyes one cannot implement this sunnah. Also each part of the body has its portion of worship, even including the eyes as mentioned in al-Badai (1/217)
[16] Due to not being able to prostrate on the ground because of them, so he moves them. Al-Halabi said in Sharh al-Muniyah that the one praying may level the area by moving the stones once and not more than this. Al-Jawhar
[17] Because it is regarded as laziness. If one is overcome by yawning then one tries to repress it as much as possible, if unable to repress it one covers the mouth with ones hand or sleeve. Badai al-Sanai (1/34)
[18] It is regarded as being an act of laziness. Al-Badai (1/215), al-Tabyin (1/163)
[19] It is to stretch them until they crack. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/21), Kanz al-Daqaiq (1/163), Durar al-Hukkam (1/107)
[20] It is by leaning and placing ones weight on one foot and then later switching to the other foot, seeking to rest by means of this. It is regarded as being a form of fidgeting. Al-Jawhar
[21] It is not desirable to spread out the fingers except when bowing. Al-Dur al-Mukhtar (1/476)
[22] Meaning reciting the Quran hurriedly such that the letters are not uttered correctly. This also applies to the reciting of the tashahhud and other invocations in the prayer.
[23] Because it is leaving the sunnah method of bowing. It is makruh tanzihi. Al-Jawhar
[24] The hanafi scholars have categorised walking within the prayer into two categories.
First: That the walking is without reason, if the person praying walks continuously for a large distance then the prayer becomes invalidated, even if they did not turn away from the qiblah whilst walking. If the amount of walking was a large distance but it was not continuous but rather spread over the units then it does not invalidate the prayer.
Second: That the walking was for a reason, if it is to perform wudu if one breaks one wudu during the prayer, or as in the prayer of fear, then the prayer is not invalidated and nor is it disliked. Rad al-Muhtar (1/628) and Dur al-Mukhtar (1/628)
[25] See al-Jawharah al-Nayyirah (1/63)
[26] Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani (Allah be pleased with him) said: Killing a louse in the prayer is more preferable to me than to bury it, Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) preferred the view of burying the louse underneath stones. This is also reported from Ibn Masud (Allah be pleased with him). However Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with him) disliked both of these because there is no harm feared from a louse. Umar and Anas would kill louse (when in the prayer) as mentioned in al-Tabyin (1/166). In al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/33) it is mentioned: the author of al-Zahiriyyah said: ‘If the one praying takes a louse in the prayer it is disliked for him to kill it, rather he buries it underneath the stones, and this is the position of Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him)’.
[27] Meaning with less than three movements. In Sharh Muniyah al-Musalli it is mentioned that to bury louse and fleas is disliked in the masjid outside of the prayer when one is not praying. Perhaps Abu Hanifah chose the view of burying rather than killing due to this not entailing any spillage of blood on the hand or clothing of the one praying, even if the amount is overlooked in terms of the validity of the prayer. If it is in the masjid there is no harm in killing it with t
he above mentioned condition except if he is reasonably sure that he will [please check] after finishing the prayer. Therefore with this detail one can join between that which is reported from Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) that one buries the louse whilst one is in the prayer, and that which is reported from him that if one buries it in the masjid one has done wrong. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/33)
[28] Meaning whilst in the prayer on to the ground or ones clothing. Al-Halabi said in Sharh al-Muniyah that spitting was disliked except if the one praying was unable to repress it such as whilst coughing. In that case it is not disliked to spit below ones left foot as long as one is not in a masjid. It is preferable to gather the saliva by spitting it into a corner of ones clothing. Al-Jawhar
[29] Likewise the shirt and other clothing.
[30] Meaning to deliberately sniff or inhale the scent. This ruling does not apply to someone noticing a fragrance. Al-Jawhar
[31] This applies to all chapters except the Fatihah which is compulsory to recite in every prayer. It is disliked because one would then be leaving the other chapters of the Quran and would be giving the impression of superiority of some chapters over others. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/363), Majma al-Anhur (1/106)
[32] It is disliked to combine the recitation of two chapters in between which there is a chapter or a number of chapters in a single unit. As for in two units if there is between the two chapters two or more chapters it is not disliked. If the difference between them is one chapter it is said that it is disliked, and it is said: that if it is lengthy it is not disliked as if they were the length of two short chapters. Fath al-Qadir (1/342)
[33] Moving from a verse in a chapter to another verse in another chapter, or within the chapter to another verse missing out the recitation of some verses. Fath al-Qadir (1/342), al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/35)
[34] Meaning to recite in one unit a chapter, then in the second unit recite a chapter which comes before it in the Quran. Or someone in one unit recites a chapter and then recites after it another chapter which in terms of sequence comes before it in the Quran. As for the situation when the person praying recites in the first unit the chapter ‘al-Nas’ (which is the final chapter of the Quran) in the second unit they should recite the same chapter again. Fath al-Qadir (1/342), al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/35).
All of the above is disliked when done deliberately, in al-Muhit it is mentioned that if the above is done due to a reason or accidentally then there is no harm. Al-Jawhar
[35] It is reported from Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf (Allah be pleased with them) that the basmalah should not be recited at the beginning of a chapter, because it is not a verse of the chapter. In al-Badai (1/204) their opinion has been declared to be the most correct. Al-Tumurtashi said in Minh al-Ghaffar that the difference regarding it was whether it was recommended or not, otherwise there is agreement that it is not makruh. Muniyah al-Musalli (p.85), Ghuniyah al-Mustamali (p.308), Halabi al-Saghir (p.192), Tanwir al-Absar (p.15), al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/330)
[36] If a child is carried in the prayer due to a reason then it is not disliked, as for when done without a reason or need then it is disliked. Badai al-Sanai (1/241-242)

Kaydani: Unlawful Acts in Prayer -Pt.10

*Chapter Five: The Unlawful Acts[1]
The general are fourteen:
1- Reciting the tasmiyah aloud[2]
2- Reciting the amin aloud[3]
3- Turning part of the face right and left[4]
4- Looking towards the sky[5]
5- Supporting oneself upon a pillar, or hand or similar without an excuse[6]
6- Raising the hands in other than what has been legislated[7]
7- Raising the toes from the ground when bowing and prostrating[8]
8- Sitting upon the heels of the foot for tashahhud[9]
9- Fidgeting with the clothing or body with less than three (movements)[10]
10- Pointing with the index finger as the people of hadith do[11]
11- Limiting the salam to one side[12]
12- Qunut in other than the witr[13]
13- Addition to the takbir, thana, tasbihat[14] or tashahhud[15] from that which is sunnah
14- Deliberately leaving of a compulsory act which has been mentioned, in ‘al-Muhit’[16] the unlawful acts have been mentioned with the disliked acts[17]
[1] The author of the text has been corrected by the other scholars of the madhab who have stated that the issues mentioned in this chapter are disliked at worst and should have been mentioned in the chapter of disliked acts within the prayer. The reader should therefore be aware of this.
[2] Al-Nablusi said in al-Jawhar: ‘The most that can be said is that loud recitation is not the sunnah and is disliked, so how can it be established that it is unlawful’.
[3] The most that can be said is that it is also not the sunnah, this does not necessitate that it is unlawful or that it is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrimi). Al-Jawhar
[4] It is makruh tahrimi as mentioned in al-Jawhar
[5] Because the one praying will not be concentrating. Maraqi al-Falah (p.337)
[6] If the person praying supports themselves due to a reason then it is not disliked. With regards to the optional prayers it is not disliked to support oneself against a wall or a stick etc. al-Jawhar
[7] Such as raising the hands when bowing for and rising up from it, because it is an additional act in the prayer, however it does not invalidate according to the correct opinion within the madhab. Al-Jawhar
[8] As for placing the two feet on the ground, al-Quduri mentions that it is Fard in prostration. Therefore if one prostrates whilst raising the toes from the ground it is not correct, this was also mentioned by al-Karkhi and al-Jassas. If one of the two feet (plz. Check) is placed on the ground it is correct. However even this was stated by Qadi Khan to be disliked. Imam al-Tumurtashi held the view that the two hands and two feet were not obligatory (fard) to place on the ground, and this is what is indicated to by the words of Shaikh al-Islam in al-Mabsut as mentioned in al-Inayah (1/303), Durar al-Hukkam (1/75), al-Jawhar. Allamah Ibn Abidin discussed this issue at length in Rad al-Muhtar (1/498) and leaned towards the view that it was compulsory (wajib).
[9] Because it is not the sunnah method of sitting
[10] Perhaps the mention of three movements is made because of the author holding the view that this is what differentiates between slight and excessive movement. This is however is not what the generality of the hanafi scholars hold to be the strongest opinion. They regard excessive movement to be that which someone looking at the one praying would think that the person was not in the prayer. Al-Badai (1/241), al-Dur al-Muntaqa (1/120), al-Mabsut (1/191)
[11] It has been mentioned previously that there is a valid difference of opinion within the madhab regarding the issue of pointing with the finger in the tashahhud, therefore it is not correct to ascribe the pointing of the finger as being the practice of only the scholars of hadith, as it is also the practise of many of the hanafis. Al-Nablusi mentioned in al-Jawhar that because of this difference of opinion in the madhab, pointing with the finger should not be regarded as being disliked let alone unlawful
[12] Because the two salams are compulsory and leaving one of them is makruh tahrimi. It is said that the second salam is sunnah and leaving it is makruh tanzihi. Al-Jawhar
[13] Such as qunut in the Fajr prayer. If a hanafi prays behind an Imam performing qunut in the fajr prayer he stands silently. Al-Jawhar
[14] It is makruh tanzihi in the obligatory prayers, because not performing the sunnah is makruh tanzihi and not makruh tahrimi. Al-Jawhar
[15] Meaning an addition in the wording of the tashahhud which is reported from Ibn Masud (Allah be pleased with him) because this is viewed as leaving a compulsory act (wajib). Adding salutations upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) to the tasahhud in the first sitting of the prayer is also regarded as being makruh tahrimi. Al-Jawhar
[16] Meaning al-Muhit al-Burhani (p.317-334) authored by Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Abd al-Aziz ibn Mazah al-Bukhari, Burhan al-Din (d.616 AH). Al-Kafawi described him as a scholar who an Imam, an expert researcher, without peer in his time, having a firm grasp of a number of different sciences. From the works he authored are ‘Dhakhirah al-Fatawa’ more well known as ‘Dhakhirah al-Burhaniyyah’. For more details refer to al-Jawahir (3/233-234), al-Fawaid (p.291-292) and al-Kashf (2/1619).
[17] This has been mentioned by the author to explain his reason for mentioning the unlawful acts separately from the disliked, as he wished to point out that what he intends by the unlawful acts are the makruh tahrimi. The makruh tahrimi is unlawful according to Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al-Shaybani (Allah be pleased with him). And according to Imam Abu Hanifah and Qadi Abu Yusuf the makruh tahrimi is close to the unlawful (haram). Therefore if the author had mentioned them both in one general chapter of the disliked acts the distinction between them would not have been clear. Al-Jawhar