Adhkar (Invocations) After the Prayer

Salam, some of us were fortunate enough to read the beginners text on fiqh ‘Tuhfa al-Mubtadi’ authored by one of the Ahsai hanafi scholars. A translation of it has been prepared (May Allah Taala facilitate its publication). During the sessions where we would gain clarification of some elements of the commentary authored by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla, he (Sh. Yahya) suggested that the section on the adhkar after the prayer be added in from his appendix to Sh. Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s ‘Wasilah al-Falah’. I requested Sh. Yahya to select some of the more essential adhkar for us from his compilation and he kindly did so. Apologies for the typsetting below, Arabic/English can be a bit awkward. Note: All adhkar have been referenced by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla and can be found in the footnotes.
The Invocations (Adhkar) and Supplications (Dua) To Be Recited After the Prayer
Compiled by Sheikh Yahya bin Muhammad al-Mulla
[1]

It is desirable to make much invocation and supplication after making the salam from the obligatory and other prayers, Due to His Taala’s words:

‘So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations [al-Sharh:7-8]

The scholars of Tafsir explaining this verse said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate[2]

From that which is reported regarding this is:

Abu Umamah (ra) said that it was said to the Messenger of Allāh (s) : “Which Supplication (Dua) is most likely to be accepted?” He said: “In the last part of the night and after the obligatory prayers[3]

From the invocations (adhkar) and supplications (dua) to be recited after the obligatory prayers is to say:

Three timesأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ

اللهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَ مِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَاذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَ الإِكْرَام[4]

The above can be recited after the obligatory prayers, they may also be recited after the non obligatory prayers along with the following invocations:

لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
اللَّهُمَّ لا مانع لما أعطيتَ ولا مُعطيَ لما منعت، ولا ينفع ذا الجَدِّ منك الجَدُّ[5]
آية الكرسي[6]
الإخلاص
المعوذتين[7]
33 timesسُبْحَانَ الله
33 timesوَ الْحَمِدُ للهِ
33 timesاللهَ اَكْبَر
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ[8]

And then make dua (supplicate) with the following:
اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الجبن وأعوذ بك أن أُرَدَّ إلى أرذل العمر، وأعوذ بك من فتنة الدنيا وأعوذ بك من عذاب القبر[9]
[1] Taken from Sheikh Yahya’s appendix to Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s selection of invocations for the morning and evening entitled ‘Wasilah al-Falah’.
[2] Reported by Abd bin Humaid, Ibn al-Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Mardawayh, from a number of routes, from Ibn Abbas (ra) regarding the His Taala’s words: “So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations”, He said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate to your Lord, and ask your need. It is reported by Ibn Abi Dunya from Abdullah bin Masud, it is reported al-Faryabi, Abd bin Humaid, In Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim from Mujahid. See al-Dur al-Manthur of al-Suyuti (6/364-365).
[3] Reported by al-Tirmidhi (3494) who said the hadith was Hasan Gharib.
[4] Thawban (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah after finishing his prayer would ask for forgiveness thrice and say: اللهم أنت السلام … الخ
Al-Walid said: I said to Al-Awzai “How was the asking for forgiveness?” He said:
استغفر الله، استغفر الله، استغفر الله
Reported by Muslim (591), Abu Dawud (1513), al-Tirmidhi (300), al-Nasai in al-Mujtaba (3/68), Ibn Majah (928)
[5] Warrad the Mawla of al-Mughirah bin Subah said: Mughirah wrote to Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan (ra): The Messenger of Allah (s) would say after the prayer when he had said the salam: لا إله إلا الله وحده … الخ
Reported by al-Bukhari (844), Muslim (593), Abu Dawud (1505), al-Nasai (3/70), in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah (129).
[6] Abu Umamah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) said: ‘Whoever recites Ayah al-Kursi after every obligatory prayer, will not be prevented from entering paradise except by death’. Reported by al-Nasai (9928) in al-Kubra
[7] Uqbah bin Amir said: The Messenger of Allah (s) ordered me to recite the muawadhatayn after every prayer. Abu Dawud’s version mentions Muawadhat. Therefore {قل هو الله أحد}
, {قل أعوذ برب الفلق} and {قل أعوذ برب الناس} should be recited. Reported by Abu Dawud (1532), al-Tirmidhi (2905), al-Nasai (3/68).
[8] Abu Hurraira (ra) said that the Prophet of Allāh (s) said: “Whoever glorifies Allāh thirty three times after every Salāh, and praises Allāh thirty three times and magnifies Allāh thirty three times and says to complete the hundred There is no god but Allāh. He is alone and has no partner. To Him belongs sovereignty and to Him belongs all praise and He has power over all things,” his sins will be forgiven even if they are like the foam of the sea. Reported by Muslim (595), Abu Dawud (1504), al-Nasai (9970)
[9] Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) would seek protection with these
words: اللهم إني أعُوذُ بك من الجُب

Green

Salam, the short piece below was written some three years ago after the mawlid at Wembley. I came to know of the blessed Sharh of the Shamail by Imam al-Lahji during the lesson of Sh. Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki which we attended during Umra the previous year. This was the lesson whose picture is on the banner above, mashallah after the lesson he kindly gave me, Imran A and Khayyam S licenses to narrate hadith from him (May Allah have mercy on him).

Asslamu Alaikum

Sheikh Hamza’s mentioning at the mawlid recently that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) liked the colour green jogged my memory about something i had read, alhumdulillah I managed to locate it, and thought i would share it with you. I found it in Sheikh al-Lahji’s commentary on the Shamail compiled by Sheikh Yusuf al-Nabahani, the text of the hadith is in square brackets, the rest is Sheikh al-Lahjis explanation, he said (1/293):
[And] Ibn al-Sunni and Abu Nuaym narrate in ‘al-Tibb al-Nabawi’ with a weak chain from Ibn Abbas May Allah be please with them both that:[He] the Messenger of Allah [Peace and Blessings upon Him liked to look at greenery] meaning trees and green vegetation… [and running/flowing water] meaning He loved to look at them and found pleasure in it, His liking to look at them was not for the reason that He would eat the greenery or drink the water
wassalam

Sayyid Ibrahim al-Khalifah al-Hasani al-Shafi

Salam
I found this old picture of Sayyid Ibrahim al-Khalifah who is a Shafi Scholar and respected for his attention to the sciences of hadith. I visited him twice in al-Ahsa, once at his masjid opposite the fort pictured elsewhere on this blog.
The second time was in the basement of his home where he was reading Sahih al-Bukhari with his students. He began the lesson by reading hadith for quite some time, and then went round each student asking them to read several hadith each, alhumdulilah I was honoured to be able to read to him when my turn came.
After the dars I asked him for Ijazah which he kindly gave me, unfortunately I do not have his thabat at hand to scan, however it should be noted that he narrates from over 70 different Shuyukh.
He has studied the Shafi madhab with the scholars of al-Ahsa, is known for his abilities as a Munshid and has a number of students, some of them quite young who study with him and look up to him as a father figure.
It is not difficult to see why as the Sheikh is one of the most friendliest scholars I have met, and one quickly feels at ease around him.
May Allah swt keep him in good health and enable us to benefit from him further.
NOTE: The picture above was taken some time ago

It-haf: Nullifiers of Wudu -Pt.6

It is Nullfied by:
– Meaning the wudu

That which exits
– Meaning appears

from the two passageways,
– The front and the rear, even if it be a small amount, whether it be an excretory product or not[1]

the flowing of filth[2]
– Such as blood and pus

from other than them,
– Meaning other than the two passageways, by the impurity flowing to a place which is required to be washed in wudu or ghusl. Therefore blood flowing within the eye from one side to the other is not regarded as nullifying the wudu.
The defintion of flowing is: that the the blood rises and flows from the cut.
If a person has a cut and wipes away the blood as soon as it appears, such that if he had not then it would have flowed onto the skin, then the wudu is still nullified. If someone squeezes a cut such that the blood flows, then also the wudu is nullified according to the chosen opinion.
If a person bites an object and then notices traces of blood on the object, or cleans the mouth with a toothstick and notices blood on it, the wudu is not nullified aslong as it is not known if there was a flow of blood.

vomiting a mouthful
– Meaning filling the persons mouth, such that it is not possible to close the mouth except with difficulty.[3]

if not phlegm,
– Wudu is only nullified if that which is vomited is food. As for phlegm by itself, its being vomited does not nullify even if it is a large amount. If the phlegm vomited is admixed with food, that which dominates is taken into consideration, and thus the ruling will be given to that which is more. Likewise clotted blood which descends from the head does not nullify[4]

sleep of one not firmly seated[5],
– In his method of sitting, such that he falls asleep whilst on his side, lying back down or face down. Wudu is therefore not nullified by one sleeping firmly seated in a cross legged position even if leaning against something where it to be removed they would fall back.[6]
A person falling asleep whilst performing prayer in the sunnah manner does not nullify his wudu.[7]

unconsciousness,
– Whichever form it may take, it is defined as being when the intellect is overcome and causes the person to faint.

insanity,
– It is defined as being when the intellect no longer fully exists.

intoxication[8],
– It is defined as that a person would not walk in an absolute straight line

loud laughter[9]
– whether deliberately or forgetfully, it is defined as being heard by the person themselves and the one next to them.

of an adult praying,
– Thereby excluding those who are not adult, therefore the laughter of a child in his prayer does not nullify their wudu, however it would still nullify the prayer.
Also the loud laughter of an adult is a nullifier of wudu only in a complete prayer, thereby excluding the funeral prayer and prostration of recitation (sajdah al-tilawah), however it would still nullify the prayer itself.

lustful touching.
– By the coming in contact of the private parts[10]

Additional Rulings: If a doubt occurs in a persons mind whether they have washed some parts of the body or not, then they are to wash that bodypart aslong as they have not finished the wudu, if this doubt ocurs after finishing the wudu then they are not to go back and wash. Likewise if he is certain that he has not washed one of the body parts but is not sure which one it is, he washes the left foot as it is one of the last body parts to be washed.
If a person is certain of their being in a state of purity and has doubts whether they are in a state of ritual impurity then they take go with the view of which they are certain, likewise the opposite. If he is certain of both occuring but is not sure of which of them occurred first then the person is to regards themselves as pure.
If a person has doubts about the purity of water and clothing then this doubt is given no credence.

[1] The hanafi scholars hold the view that something such as a stone where it to be excreted by an individual nullifies the wudu, even though it is not normally regarded as being an excretory product. One of the evidences they cite in support of this view is that which is reported by al-Darqutni in his Sunan (1/151 with al-Taliq al-Mughni) from Ibn Abbas in a marfu form that: ‘Wudu is from that which exits not that which enters’, the chain contains the narrator Shubah regading whom there is some disagreement, some of the scholars of hadith declared him trustworthy whilst others weakened him. The more correct view is that it is a mawquf narration of Ibn Abbas as related by Saeed bin Mansur. Al-Bayhaqi said that it was also reported from Ali. See Fath al-Qadeer (1/25).
[2] Al-Darqutni reports in his Sunan (1/157) that the Messenger of Allah (s) said: ‘Wudu is from every flowing blood’. For other evidences and reasoning refer to Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/62).
[3] Abu Dawud (2381), al-Nasai, al-Tirmidhi (87) who said: this is the most authentic thing regarding this subject, al-Hakim in his Mustadrak (1/426) who said: Sahih according to the two Sheikhs (Bukhari and Muslim) all narrate that: Abu Darda said : ‘The Prophet (s) vomited and then performed wudu. Later I met Thawban in the masjid of Damascus and I mentioned it to him. Thawban said: He is right; I poured water for the wudu of the Prophet (s)’.
[4] All that which is not an impurity, such as non flowing blood, vomit less than a mouthful in not filth according to Abu Yusuf, whereas Muhammad bin Hasan said that it was filth out of precaution, however the fatwa is with the position of Abu Yusuf. This rule has been expressed by some as: ‘That which is not an impurity is not filth’. Therefore any of the above if they were to come into contact with an object or liquid would not cause them to become filthy.
Al-Aini said in his work al-Binayah (1/128) that flowing blood from a cut which does not reach an area which has to be washed (in wudu or ghusl) is classified as being pure (tahir) according to the most apparent view. This was the view of Abu Yusuf and was also the position chosen by al-Karkhi, Abu Abdullah al-Qallas, Muhammad bin Salamah, Abu Nasr, Abul Qasim and Abu Layth. Muhammad bin Hasan’s view was that it was still filth (najas) and he was supported in this view by Abu Bak
r al-Askaf and Abu Jafar al-Hindawani.
The author of al-Hidayah supported the first view and declared it to be Sahih, as was quoted by al-Tumurtashi in Fath al-Ghaffar who added that this position was relied upon by the authors of the mutun and therefore is the madhab position.
In al-Jawharah al-Nayyarah (1/9) its mentioned that fatwa will be given according to the position of Abu Yusuf if it comes into contact with solid materials like clothes and the body, and that fatwa will be given according to the position of Muhammad bin Hasan if it comes into contact with liquids such as water. This position was cited by Ibn Nujaim in al-Bahr (1/115), al-Tumurtashi in Fath al-Ghaffar, al-Haskafi in al-Dur al-Mukhtar (1/95) and was affirmed by the author of glosses on al-Dur al-Mukhtar, namely al-Tahtawi, Ibn Abidin and al-Rafi.
[5] Ibn Abidin (1/141) mentions that sleep is a natural state which occurs in humans without their control, it prevents the outward and inner senses from fully functioning despite their being sound. It also prevents the use of the intellect despite its being present.
Sleep and that which is mentioned after it from unconsciousness, insanity and intoxication are situations where there is a possibilty that the person may have entered a state of ritual impurity without noticing, therefore it is regarded as being so out of precaution.
The above rulings are deduced from the following hadiths: Aishah (ra) said that the Messenger of Allah (s) fell unconscious, He awoke and washed to pray, He then again fell unconscious, then awoke and washed’, reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
And based on His (s) words ‘ The eyes are the strap of the rear passageway, so the one who sleeps should perform wudu’, reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and graded Hasan by Ibn al-Salah, al-Nawawi and al-Munhiri. For further details refer to Nasb al-Rayah (1/44-47).
[6] Due to the hadith of Anas who said ‘The companions of the Messenger of Allah (s) waited for the Isha prayer until their heads began nodding up and down from drowsiness and sleep. They would then pray without doing wudu ‘ reported by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud. See al-Talkhis al-Habir (1/180).
[7] Due to the hadith of Ibn Abbas (ra) that the Prophet (s) said: ‘The one who sleeps whilst in the sajda does not have to perform wudu except if he lies down, for if he lies down his joints become loose’ reported by Ahmad (1/256) Abu Dawud (202) al-Tirmidhi (77) and others. See Nasb al-Rayah (1/44-45) of al-Zaylai.
[8] Ibn Abidin (1/144) defined it as a state which overcomes the mind due to alchohol and its like causing the intellect not to function properly, resulting in it not being able to differentiate between matters which are good and evil.
[9] Loud laughter is defined as that which can be heard by the person themselves and those next to them. Laughter on the other hand is defined as being heard by the person themselves but not by the person next to them, this nullifies the prayer and not the wudu. Smiling is that to which there is no sound, it neither affects the prayer nor the state of wudu. See Tabyin al-Haqaiq of al-Zaylai (1/11).
The evidence for it is that which is reported by Ibn Adiyy in al-Kamil from the hadith of Ibn Umar who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (s) said: Whoever laughs out aloud in the prayer must repeat the wudu and the prayer’. Its chain contains Baqiyyah who is a mudallis, however he has explicitly stated hearing, and a truthful mudallis if explicit about hearing results in the removal of the problem of tadlis in the chain. And Baqiyyah belongs to this category of narrators. See Nasb al-Rayah (1/48).
Abu Hanifah narrates in his Musnad that He (s) said ‘While the Messenger of Allah (s) was praying with the people, a person with a problem with his sight, walked into a covered well and fell. At this some people burst out laughing. The Messenger of Allah (s) said: whoever amongst you laughed out loud should repeat their wudu and their prayer’. See Fath al-Qadir (1/35)
This is an issue in which the Hanafis are alone in following the hadith and have abandoned analogy (qiyas) because of it. It is a clear proof that the Hanafis give precedence to the hadith over anology and that they are the most stringent of people in following the hadith. See al-Lubab (1/45)
[10] Without a barrier between the two desirous individuals, this is the position of Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf. They argue that this situation would normally result in the emission of madhi (pre-seminal fluid) which nullifies the wudu and is treated like the scenario of sleep mentioned earlier. It is evident however that mere contact between the two private parts of two individuals is does not always result in the release of madhi, even if it be with desire, and therefore does not nullify the wudu. This was the view of Muhammad bin Hasan and was relied upon by many of the scholars. See Hashiyah Ibn Abidin.

It-haf: Makruhat of Wudu -Pt.5

Disliked (Makruh) Acts of Wudu[1]
From its disliked (makruh)[2] acts are:
Striking the face with water, excessive use of water[3], to not wash the body parts thoroughly, wiping three times with new water.

[1] The makruhat of wudu are not mentioned in the main text, rather the author mentions them in his commentary Minhaj al-Raghib p.80.
[2] Makruh according to the fuqaha is of two types: ‘makruh tahrimi’ which is meant when the term makruh or karaha is used in its unqualified sense, its ruling is that avoiding it is compulsory (wajib) as mentioned in Fath al-Qadeer.
The second type of makuh is: ‘makruh tanzihi’, its ruling is that avoiding it is better than performing it.
One will find in the books of the hanafi madhab that at times the scholars may classify something as being makruh, but do not specify whether it is tahrimi or tanzihi. In this case it is necessary to look at evidences for that particular issue. If the prohibition regarding it is conjectural (zanni) then it is classified as makruh tahrimi. If the evidence is not prohibitory in meaning but rather indicates that the thing should be left then it is tanzihi. For a more detailed and precise discussion refer to al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/20).
[3] Excess is defined as using more water than is required to perform wudu, due to the hadith of Abdullah bin Umar: ‘The Messenger of Allah (s) passed by Sa’d while he was performing wudu and said, “What is this extravagance, Sa’d?” He said, “Is there extravagance in the use of water?” He said, “Yes, even if you are at a flowing river’. Reported by Ahmad (1/222) and Ibn Majah (425)

It-haf: Mustahab Acts of Wudu -Pt.4

Its Desirable (Mustahab) Acts:
– Meaning of washing (wudu), it is also called mandub, adab and fadilah. It is defined as that which was performed by the Prophet (s) once/at times, and left at other times, and that which is beloved to the early muslims (salaf).[1]

Beginning from the right,
– Meaning with the right side when washing the hands and feet[2] not the face nor ears.

wiping the neck,
– With the back of the hands[3] the throat is not wiped because to do so would be an innovation.

the transmitted invocations during it
– There are a number of invocations mentioned which can be recited whilst washing and wiping the various body parts.[4]

Additional Rulings: From the etiquettes (adab) of washing (wudu) are: To face the qiblah in other than the state of istinja[5], to perform it before the entering of the prayer time except for the one with a chronic excuse[6], the moving of a loose ring[7], not seeking help from another person[8], to not engage in wordly talk, to join between the intention of the heart and verbalizing with the tongue, the lengthening of the white patches/streaks[9], the recitation of surah al-Qadr and praying two units[10] in other than a disliked prayer time.[11]

[1] In the work Tuhfa al-Fuqaha (1/21) of Ala al-Din al-Samarqandi said the difference between sunnah and adab is defined as that: the sunnah is that which was the continuous practice of the Messenger of Allah (s) which was only left by Him (s) once or twice. Adab is defined as being that which was performed by the Messenger of Allah (s) once or twice and was not habitually performed.
The scholars have stated that there is no difference between the terms: mustahab, mandub, adab, fadilah, nafl. See Dur al-Mukhtar with al-Hashiyah (1/123).
[2] Beginning with right side when washing has been mentioned as being mustahab in a number of works of the hanafi madhab such as al-Kanz, al-Tanwir and Sharh al-Durar. It has been classified as being sunnah in the work al-Shirah and in al-Hidayah as being from the fadail.
However Abu Dawud (4141) and Ibn Majah (402) report that He (s) said: ‘If you perform wudu then begin from your right side’, it is also reported by Ibn Khuzaimah (178) Ibn Hibban (1078) in their Sahih’s. A number of companions who relate His (s) manner of performing wudu clearly mention his beginning the washing the hands and feet from the right hand side, this therefore indicates this was His (s) regular practice as the companions related what they saw from His (s) habitual performance, therefore it is a sunnah.
[3] Abu Ubaid al-Qasim narrates in al-Tahur (192/386) from al-Qasim bin Abd al-Rahman from Musa bin Talha said: ‘He who wipes his neck with his head will be protected from the ghul on the day of judgement’.
Ghul: a ring of steel placed around the neck to debase and torture. The hadith is Mawquf but it takes the ruling of Marfu as the content of the hadith was not mentioned based merely on opinion. It is strengthened by that which is mentioned in a marfu form is Musnad al-Firdaws from the hadith of Ibn Umar that: ‘Wiping the neck is a protection from the ‘ghul’ on the day of judgement’ however its chain is weak, except that that it is agreed that the weak hadith are acted upon in virtuous actions’. See Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/57) and Talkhis al-Habir (1/135-136).
[4] Al-Tahtawi said in his Hashiyah ala Maraqi al-Falah (p.45): Ibn Ameer Hajj said: Our Sheikh the Hafidh of his age, Shihab al-Din bin Hajr al-Asqalani was asked regarding the narrations cited in the Muqaddimah of Abu Layth regarding the invocations for the limbs. He answered: They are weak and the scholars are lenient when mentioning the weak hadith and acting upon it in virtuous actions. None of them are established from the Messenger of Allah (s), neither from his statements, nor actions. Therefore there is no harm in acting upon them based on the principles of the weak (hadith) along with its conditions.
Imam al-Nawawi said in al-Adhkar (p.81) that the jurists (fuqaha) have said it is mustahab to recite the prayers whilst washing each body part.
[5] Because it is an act of worship or a prelude to it, therefore one chooses for it the best place which is to face the direction of prayer (qiblah).
[6] A person with a chronic excuse is someone repeatedly nullifying his wudu and is unable to control it. This person performs wudu for the time of every prayer, and his wudu is nullified with the prayer time finishing. Therefore should he perform wudu before the entering of the prayer time- eg. Performing wudu near the end of the time of Zuhr so that he may pray Asr- his wudu is nullified as soon as the time for Asr starts. His wudu will only have lasted till the end of Zuhr time. Therefore in the case of a person with a chronic excuse there is no benefit in his performing wudu before the time for that prayer starting.
In the case of the person whom is normal and does not have a problem (ie. Someone who is not classified as having a chronic excuse) it is sunnah for them to make wudu for the prayer before the time of prayer entering. After the entry of the prayer time it becomes fard (obligatory) to perform wudu. This is one of the issues wherein a sunnah act is superior to a fard action, Imam al-Suyutis versification of these issues can be found in al-Ashbah wa al-Nazair (p.275).
[7] As for a ring which is tightly fitted on the finger then it is necessary to move it in wudu and ghusl in order for the water to reach the skin area it covers. Because the Prophet (s): ‘When He would perform wudu for the prayer would move the ring on His finger’ reported by Ibn Majah (449).
[8] Meaning not seeking help with the actual washing and wiping of the body parts. As for someone pouring water for the one performing wudu, or providing water for them then there is nothing disliked in this, even if it was requested.
Al-Bukhari said in his Sahih (1/248 with the Sharh of Ibn Hajar) that: The Messenger of Allah (s) departed from Arafah came to al-Shuab and relieved himself. Usamah s
aid: I poured water for Him whilst He performed wudu…’.
[9] The Messenger of Allah (s) said, “My nation will come with bright streaks of light from the traces of ablution…If one can lengthen his streak of light, he should do so’, reported by al-Bukhari (1/45).
What is meant by lengthening the streaks of light is going beyond the obligatory area to be washed in wudu.
[10] Due to His (s) words: ‘If one performs and perfects his ablution and prays two rak’ah with his heart and face (completely on his prayer), Paradise becomes his’, reported by Muslim (17).
[11] Because the leaving of a disliked act is superior to the performance of a desired act.

It-haf: Sunnah Acts of Wudu -Pt.3

Its Recommended (Sunnah) Acts[1]:
– Meaning of washing (wudu)

The intention[2],
– It is by intending to remove the state of ritual impurity, or to be able to offer the prayer, or an act of worship which can only be performed whilst being in a state of ritual purity. One forms the intention at the time of the washing of the face[3], and its place is the heart.

the tasmiyah,
– Starting the washing (wudu) with the name of Allah (taala), before the istinja and after it, however not when one is uncovered nor in a place where there is filth present[4]
If a person performing wudu forgets to mention it at the beginning but then recalls and mentions it in during the washing (wudu), they will be regarded as not having performed the recommended act, this is different to the ruling of mentioning the tasmiyah during the course of a meal[5] However if one forgets to mention the tasmiyah at the beginning they should still utter it if they recall it during the washing (wudu).
Its wording is[6]: Bismillah al-Adheem, Wal-Hamdulilah ala Deen al-Islam

washing the hands up to the wrists three times[7]
– Both before and after istinja, whether awakening from sleep or not. It is also recommended to wash them when washing the arms

the toothstick[8],
– Meaning its use, it is desirable (mustahab) that it is with the right hand, that the toothstick be flexible, a hands length and thickness of the small finger. The sunnah method to hold it is that: the right little finger is at the bottom of the toothstick, with the other three fingers being above it and the thumb being below the top of the toothstick as is reported from Ibn Masud[9] (ra).
If a toothstick is not available then the use of the finger or cloth is sufficient and of equal reward.[10]
Note: It is desirable to to use the toothstick in a number of places: When the teeth are yellow, to change the odour of the mouth , when awakening from sleep, when standing up to pray, when wishing to recite to the Quran[11]

washing the mouth,
– Meaning water reaching all of the mouth

rinsing the nose,
– By the water reaching the soft part of the nose
Note: washing the mouth and rinsing the nose are two emphasized sunnahs which are based on five sunnahs, namely: order, cleaning three times, taking new water[12], performing these with the right hand and thoroughly washing and rinsing when not fasting.
The limits for them in the washing of the mouth is that the water reaches the head of the throat, and in rinsing that it goes past the soft part of the nose

combing the beard
– For other than the one in a state of ihram with a scoop of water, the method of performing it is to enter the fingers in the beard going from the bottom to the top, this is after the washing of the face three times[13], the back of the hand is faced towards the neck

And
– Rubbing in between the

fingers,
– of the hands and toes after washing the body part three times, the method of its performance with the hands is to interlace them, and with the feet is to rub with the small finger of the left hand starting with the small toe of the right foot and working all the way to the left foot.[14]

washing three times,
– The body parts that are to be washed, meaning to repeat the washing three times. This excludes wiping which is not to be performed three times.

wiping the whole head
– Once covering the whole head, it is a sunnah to start with the front part[15]

and ears,
– After wiping the head with the remaining moisture, the insides of the ears with the index finger, and the outer part with the thumbs, if no moisture remains on the hands after the wiping of the head then he may take new water for it.

order,
– As mentioned in the revealed texts, such that the he washes that which was mentioned first in the verse

continuity,
– It is the washing of the second body part before the first becoming dry

Rubbing
– Which is the passing of the hand over the body part whilst washing it[16]

[1] An emphasized (muakkadah) recommended act is one that which the Prophet (s) regularly performed and only left on occasion. As for that which He (s) did not regularly perform then it called desirable (mandub). See Maraqi al-Falah (p.38-39 with al-Hashiyah)
[2] It has been defined by some of the scholars as being the definite resolve and focus in the heart to perform an act, see Maraqi al-Falah (p.44 with al-Hashiyah).
[3] Ibn Nujaim in al-Ashbah wa al-Nazair (p.44) mentions that the basis for intentions are that they should be formed at the beginning of the act of worship, with regards to the washing (wudu) some scholars have said that it should be formed when washing the hands so as to gain the reward for the other recommended acts which are performed before the washing of the face.
[4] It is apparent that what is meant is that a person utters the tasmiyah before removing their clothing in order to relieve themselves. This is when a person relieves themselves in a place other than a bathroom. As for the bathroom a person would utter the tasmiyah before entering it, if he forgets to utter it in the beginning in either of these two cases he is to say it in his heart and not with his tongue, honouring the name of Allah (taala).
[5] Because the act of washing (wudu) is regarded as one whole act, whilst when eating each mouthful is regarded as a separate action. See Maraqi al-Falah (p.40)
[6] In Fath al-Qadeer it is mentioned that this wordin
g is reported from the early muslims (salaf), and it has also been said that it is reported from the Prophet (s).
[7] The evidence for the washing of the hands prior at the beginning of the wudu being recommended (sunnah) is the hadith ‘….’
The washing of the hands is a sunnah for all those who wish to make wudu, the condition of when waking up mentioned in the hadith is based on the common situation of a person performing wudu for the Fajr prayer after waking up.
[8] It is a recommended (sunnah) act due to His (s) words: ‘Were it not that I would be overburdening my community I would have ordered them to use a tooth-stick with each wudu’. Reported by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih and was graded Sahih by al-Hakim. The hadith is also reported with the slight variation of wording “with each prayer” which is related in the six books of hadith
Imam al-Aini mentions that the scholars have differed over the toothstick whether it is from the sunan of wudu or the prayer or the religion, the last view is regarded as being the strongest and is reported from Imam Abu Hanifah. There are some hadith which support this view. See al-Binayah fi Sharh al-Hidayah (1/86-87) and Umdah al-Qari (6/181).
[9] Abdullah bin Masud (d.32 AH), one of the major companions, from the people of Makkah and early converts to Islam. He was one of the trustworthy servants of the Messenger of Allah (s). He was put in charge of the public treasury in al-Kufah, he then returned to al-Madinah during the khilafah of Uthman bin Affan (ra), passing away at around sixty years of age. See al-Alaam (4/137)
[10] the Messenger of Allah r said: ‘The finger suffices in place of the toothstick’, reported by al-Bayhaqi (1/40) from Anas with various wordings.
[11] In the Hashiyah Ibn Abidin it is mentioned quoting from al-Miraj that there is no specified number of times one should clean the mouth with a toothstick, rather the toothstick should be used until the person feels that the mouth is clean, it is desirable (mustahab) that it be three times with three scoops of water.
[12] Meaning taking new water, three times for washing the mouth, three times for rinsing the nose due to that which is reported by Abu Dawud (139) and al-Tabarani that the Messenger of Allah (s) performed wudu, he washed his mouth three times, and rinsed his nose three times, taking new water each time.
[13] Anas said “When the Prophet r performed wudu, he would take a handful of water and put it under his jaws, and pass it through his beard. And said: This is what my Lord ordered me to do”. Reported by Abu Dawud (145).

[14] Ibn al-Hummam in Fath al-Qadeer (1/20) said that this method is not a sunnah in of itself, rather it happens to be a way that the rubbing between the toes was performed.
Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah r said: “When you perform wudu then rub between your fingers and toes”, reported by al-Tirmidhi (39) who graded it Hasan.
[15] Due to the hadith of bin Zaid bin Asim which contains “Then inserted His hand and brought it out and wiped his head both front and back with his hands”, reported by the six, see Talkhis al-Habir (1/123,124).
Al-Zaylai commented in Tabyin al-Haqaiq that (1/5) that there is some discussion surrounding the method of wiping the head, the more apparent view is that the hands and the fingers are placed at the front of the head and are passed all the way up to the neck in a way which covers the whole head, then the ears are wiped with the fingers.
Ibn al-Hummam in Fath al-Qadeer (1/12) said that the not placing of the fingers or hands in some parts of the wiping so that they maybe used later has no basis in the sunnah, see also Hashiyah Ibn Abidin (1/89).
[16] Imam Maliks view was that rubbing and continuity were obligatory in washing (wudu) and bathing (ghusl), he is the only one of the Imams to hold this opinion. The evidence for them being sunnah is that Allah (taala) has ordered for washing in a general/absolute sense without conditioning continuity nor rubbing. See Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/56).

It-haf: Obligatory Acts of Wudu -Pt.2

Salam, another addition alhumdulilah to the fiqh series I hope to put up Inshallah. As mentioned previously, its from It-haf al-Talib by Sh. Abu Bakr al-Mulla, with explanatory notes taken from his and Sh. Yahya al-Mulla notes.
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The Book of Purification
– The conditions for purification being compulsory (wajib) are eight in number[1]:

1) Sanity
2) Maturity
3) Islam
4) Ability to use a sufficient amount of purifying water
5) Being in a state of ritual impurity (hadath)
6) Absence of menstruation
7) Absence of post birth bleeding
8) Time constraint

The conditions for it being valid/correct are three[2]:
1) Covering the area to be washed with purifiying water
2) Absence of that which negates it such as menstruation and post birth bleeding
3) The removal of that which prevents water reaching the body[3]

The pillars (arkan) of washing (wudu)
– A pillar (rukn) is an obligatory act which exists within the form of an act of worship, as for a condition (shart) it exists outside of this act of worship. Obligatory (fard) is a more general term and applies to them both.

are four:
– Due to His (taala) words: ‘O you who believe, when you stand for prayer then wash your faces, your hands up to the elbows, wipe your heads, and your feet up to the ankles’ [al-Maida:6]

Washing the face,
– Washing is the flowing of the water over a body part such that atleast two drops drip according to the strongest opinion[4]
The definition of the face lengthwise is from the top of the forehead where the hairlines usually begins to below the chin[5] and width wise that which is between the two earlobes[6]. It is also compulsory to wash the corner of the eyes[7] and that which remains apparent from the lips when they are closed. Likewise the area which is between the beard and the ear.
It is not compulsory to wash the inside of the eyes[8]
As for facial hair: if it is copious and covers the skin then it is compulsory to wash the outer part of it[9]. As for the facial hair which is light then it is compulsory for water to reach the skin beneath it.

washing the hands including the elbows,
– Meaning from the hands, including the arms all the way up to and including the elbows

wiping a quarter of the head[10],
– The area of the head to be wiped is that which is above the ears, from any of the four sides of the head, with new water.
In the case of rainwater dripping on the head and covering a quarter of it then it would be regarded as valid, likewise wiping the head with moisture/wetness remaining on the hands after having washed a body part is valid, however wiping the head with moisture on the hands after having wiped another body part is not valid except if the hands are wet such that water drips from them.[11]
If someone wipes their head and then shaves their hair then they are not required to wipe the head again.

washing the feet including the ankles
– The ankles are the bones protruding from the sides of the feet

[1] The conditions for washing (wudu) becoming compulsory means that when all of the above are found in a person, then they it becomes compulsory for them to purify themselves. In the sacred law a condition (shart) is that which the existence of something is dependent upon. See Sharh Muniyah al-Musalli (p.12).
[2] The conditions for validity/correctness means that the purification is correct when these conditions are met. Menstruation and post birth bleeding are mentioned in both sets of conditions, in the first (conditions for purification being compulsory) they are present to indicate upon whom purification is compulsory, and here they are to indicate that this compulsory purification has been performed correctly. See Rad al-Muhtar (1/86).
[3] Such that if something the breadth of a hair or head of a needle was covering the skin area to be washed then the washing is not valid. An example of this is nail polish worn by women which creates a barrier over the nail and prevents water reaching the nails. As for dyeing with henna then there is no harm in this, because it does not leave a substance which prevents water reaching the skin.
[4] It is apparent that if someone washes an amount such that only two drops of water drip then this will not be regarded as being insufficient washing of the body part. It also possible that this definition of washing is a clarification of the amount which would make the washing valid/correct and therefore limiting oneself to washing by which only two drops of water drip is disliked (makruh). See Hashiyah al-Tahtawi ala al-Dur (1/61).
[5] Meaning the bottom of the bone upon which the lower teeth are. See al-Dur al-Mukhtar with al-Hashiyah (1/71)
[6] Te earlobes are soft part of the ear at its bottom
[7] Mulla Ali al-Qari in his Sharh Mishkat al-Masabih (1/317) mentions that it is referring here to the corner of the eye adjacent to the nose and the substances which accumulate in the corner of the eyes.
[8] Rather it is not recommended to wash the inside of the eyes due to the harm involved, such that the scholars have mentioned that if a person was to apply antimony to the eyes which was impure, even then washing the insides of the eyes would not be compulsory. See Rad al-Muhtar (1/90).
The author of al-Binayah (1/91) mentioned that those of the companions such as Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar who did wash inside their eyes suffered problems with their eyesight in old age.
[9] This excludes the facial hair which hangs from the face such as the beard. See Ibn Abidin (1/72)
[10] A quarter of the head has been specified as being the obligatory amount to be wiped due to that which is reporte
d by Muslim (81) that Mughriah bin Shubah said that the Prophet (s): ‘Performed wudu and wiped his forelock and his turban and his socks’. The forelock is front part of the head, which is a quarter of the head. For a more detailed discussion refer to Fath Bab al-Inayah of Mulla Ali al-Qari (1/44).
[11] The difference between the moisture/wetness remaining after wiping and washing is that water by its mere contact with a washed limb does not become used aslong as it does not flow, as ritual impurity is not removed except by the water flowing over an area. With the case of wiping the waters coming in contact with the skin of the head becomes used, as wiping is defined as the water coming in contact with the skin and does not have to flow in order to purify. See al-Siayah fi Sharh al-Wiqayah of al-Luknawi (1/76).

It-haf: Aqida with Notes – Pt.1

Salam, please find below the section on Aqidah from the text It-haf al-Talib. I selected some very brief notes based on the commentary (Minhaj al-Raghib) by the author (Sh. Abu Bakr al-Mulla), as you can see some points go without a detailed explanation, the reason being that the Sheikhs discussion was very ilm al-kalam based, and is thus of little benefit to the beginner student in this day and age (in the past it may have been different!). Ideally some detailed notes for each of the points from excellent modern works such as ‘Mukhtasar al-Mufid’ of Sh. Nuh Ali Salman would prove extremely useful for the intended audience, may Allah (the exalted) facilitate this project in the future. Note: Matn is in bold
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Introduction: The Correct Belief:
-Meaning that which a person believes and hold to be true in their heart and mind

It is to know
-meaning to have a firm definite belief[1] along with acceptance and conviction

that Allah is:
Existent

– Because of the agreement of the Salaf and Khalaf from the scholars of hadith and Imams of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah that everything other than Allah (taala) is created[2]

and is necessarily[3] existent,
– His essence (dhat) necessitates that He is existent[4]

beginningless[5],
– Meaning that He (taala) has always existed without a beginning. He (taala) said: ‘He is the First and Last’[6]

Everlasting
– Meaning that it is impossible for Him to be non existent, or that His existence come to an end[7]

one,
– Meaning in his essence, attributes and actions. There is no other essence like Him, nothing else has the same attributes as Him, and nothing is similar to Him in terms of actions meaning that He alone has created everything and is the real cause for everything.[8] All of this is generally included in the Kalimah al-Tawhid.

There are many proofs for Tawhid mentioned in the transmitted sources and rational proofs. The prophets and messengers were sent because of tawhid, He (taala) said: ‘Your God is one, there is no god except He’[9] ‘Say: He Allah is one’[10]

He (s) said: ‘I have been ordered to fight the people until they say ‘there is no god except Allah’ if they say it their blood, wealth is protected from me except due to a right and their reckoning is with Allah’[11]

self sufficient,
-Meaning through His essence. It means that Allah (Taala) is free of need or help from anything, He does not need a place in which to exist.

dissimilair to created things.
– Meaning none of the creation resembles Him, not in his essence, attributes or actions. Allah (taala) has said: ‘Nothing resembles Him, and He is all hearing all seeing’[12]

From is attributes are:
– These attributes subsist in His essence, they are seven in number and are called the ‘Sifat al-Ma’ani’[13]. The first being:

Life,
-…… The second being:

knowledge,
– It is an attribute which totally encompasses all things without there having been any previous ignorance of them. He (taala) is knowledgeable of all information/knowledge and that what can possibly take place. He (taala) said: ‘And Allah is knowledgeable of all things’[14] ‘He encompasses everything with His knowledge’[15]. He is knowledgeable of that which was, what will be, that which wasn’t if it were to be how it would be. The third is:

power,
– It is the attribute which brings into existence the possible and vice versa according to His will. It relates to all of the possible acts (mumkinat) as opposed to the necessary (wajibat) and impossible (mustahilat).
He (taala) is powerful to do as He wishes what is meant by the possible (mumkin) acts are bodies[16] or accidents[17]. The fourth is:

will,
– This is the attribute which specifies whether something occurs or not. Allah (taala) will relates to the occurrence of good and evil, He (taala) said: ‘He whom Allah wishes to be guided He expands their chests/hearts to Islam, and whom Allah wishes to misguide He makes his heart constricted’[18] The fifth is:

hearing,
– It is an attribute which encompasses everything which can be heard, even if imperceptible. The sixth is:

seeing,
– It is an attribute which encompasses everything which can be seen even if minute and not evident. The evidences for both of these attributes are mentioned in numerous places in the Quran and Sunnah and are necessarily known from the religion of the Prophet (s), there it is incumbent definitively affirm them. The seventh is:

Speech
– Which does not consist of letters nor sounds[19]

His essence does not resemble other essences
– Rather He (taala) is different to anything else

and His attributes do not resemble other attributes.
– Allahs attributes such as knowledge and power are more greater and perfect than similarly described attributes amongst created things, such that there is no similtude between them. For example our knowledge is recently discovered or learnt, is limited etc, His (taala) knowledge is all encompassing, beginningless, everlasting etc. Therefore there is no similarity between Allah and the creations attribute of knowledge.
Allah (taala) is neither a body (jism)[20] nor an atom[21], nor an accident. Because He (taala) is free from being created. Neither is He a form, nor limit
ed, He does not exist in a place, time does not pass over Him, anything that comes to your mind in terms of imagining Allah, then know that Allah is different to it.
After learning of that which is necessary for Him (taala) in terms of His attributes, know that it is also necessary to learn/know that which is impossible for Him.

He is free from attributes of deficiency,
– Such as the opposites of the attributes which have been mentioned, we cannot conceive of the opposites of these attributes being possible. It is impossible for Allah to be non-existent, created, that He is not one in terms of His essence, attributes and actions. That He is not self sufficient, that He resembles the creation, that He is unable to do something possible, that He be forced to create something, that He be attributed with ignorance, sleep, death, deafness, blindness, being unable to speak.
To conclude: It is necessary for everyone to believe that Allah (taala) is free from every deficiency, and also anything which is not a deficiency nor is perfection. By mentioning these points specifically a clear refutation of all deviated groups including the anthropomorphists is intended.[22]

nothing is incumbent upon Him
– Such as reward, punishment, the performance of an act or its non performance

Qadr, the good and the evil is from Him.
– Its is necessary to believe that He (taala) apportioned the good and evil before creating the creation, and that all of existence is according to His decree, Qadr and will. That which He apportioned in pre eternity from the good and evil must occur, and that which He did not apportion cannot occur. This is the amount which must be believed in as mentioned in the hadith of Gibril reported in the two Sahih’s.[23]
The evidences for this from the Quran and Sunnah are numerous, He (taala) said: ‘Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure’[24]

He the Exalted sent his Messengers
– Meaning sent them to the creation, giving good news and warning, so as to inform them of Allah’s orders, prohibitions, reward and punishment. And to explain to them that which they are in need of knowing from the matters of this world and the religion present in the sacred law and rulings revealed to them in the form their books.
Belief in the messengers also includes belief in the prophets. Those whose specific name is known it is incumbent to believe in them specifically, and those whose name is not known are to be believed in a general sense, likewise the divinely revealed books and angels, those whose name is known belief in them specifically is necessary, and those whose name is not known a general belief in them is required.

and revealed to them Books
– They are 104 in number, 50 to Sheeth, 30 to Idris, 20 to Adam, 10 to Ibrahim, the Tawrah, the Injil, al-Zabur and the Quran.
Belief in them entails that one affirms that they are the beginningless, uncreated speech of Allah, neither letters nor sounds, and all that they contain is true and correct.

and divinely protected them
– That Allah (taala) does not create in them a sin along with their still having the choice and ability to do so

from
-All

sins.
– Both the major and minor sins, whether forgetfully or deliberately, before and after prophethood. This position was chosen and declared as correct by Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami[25]

The Angels
– They are bodies of light able to take on different forms, they worship their Lord and reside in the heavens, therefore it is necessary to believe that they are:

are servants of Allah
– Allah (Taala) said: ‘they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are commanded’[26]
Their numbers are such that Allah alone knows it, He (taala) said: ‘And none can know the forces of your Lord, except He’[27]

and are not attributed with sin
– Because of their being protected from and unable to sin

The miracles of the Saints (awliyah)
– A saint/friend (wali) is one knowledgeable of Allah and his attributes, who is firm in obedience, avoids sins.
A miracle (karamah) is an event which breaks the natural order of events at the hands of a righteous servant who does not claim prophethood, the righteous servant closely follows the sacred law of the Prophet whom he is obliged to follow, and possesses sound belief and righteous works.

are true
– Meaning it is established that they may possibly take place as was the view of the majority of Ahl al-Sunnah, whose proof lies in what is mentioned in the Quran of the story of Maryam and her giving birth to Isa[28] (as) without a husband, the story of the people of the cave and their living for a number of years without eating nor drinking[29], the story of Asif[30] and his bringing of the throne in an instant to Suleiman (as).

Also those miracles which took place at the hands of the companions (Allah be pleased with them), such as the flowing of the nile due to the letter of Umar (ra)[31], and his seeing whilst on the minbar in al-Madinah his army in Nahuwand such that he said to to the commander of the army ‘O Sariyah! The mountain the mountain’ warning him of the enemy behind the mountain, and Sariyah hearing his voice despite the distance between the two[32]. Likewise Khalids drinking poison and it not harming him[33]

Death
– Which is the seperation of the soul from the body

is according to lifespan
– It is the time that Allah has written in pre eternity for the end of a persons life, everyone who dies or is killed is because of the ending of his lifespan which Allah knew in pre eternity that it would take place. He (taala) said: ‘When their term comes, neither can they delay it nor can they advance it an hour (or a moment)’[34]

Commiting major sins does not remove one from faith/belief
– A person does not become a disbeliever by commiting major sins in contrast to the view of the khawarij[35]
The proof against them is the description in the Quran and Sunnah of sinners as being believers, He (taala) said: ‘And if two parties or groups among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both, But if one of them rebels against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which rebels till it com
plies with the Command of Allâh…’[36]
Both groups have been described as believers despite them fighting each other and one of them rebelling against another, both of the acts being sins.

Additional Note[37]:
Iman (faith) is the affirmation of all that which our Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless Him and give Him peace has come with) and which is known by necessity in the religion. Such as the oneness of Allah, prophethood, the sending forth from the graves, recompense for actions, the obligatory nature of the five daily prayers, zakat, fasting, hajj, the prohibition of alcohol, fornication etc. Therefore if someone does not affirm that the five daily prayers are obligatory when asked they becomes disbelievers. What is meant by affirming that which He (s) has come with is: Accepting that which He has come with happiness/pleasure, not the mere ascription in the heart of His being truthful without being convinced of it and accepting it. As many of the unbelievers knew He (s) was truthful with regards to His (s) prophethood and that which He (s) came with, however they did not accept it. When affirmation is a hidden matter which we cannot comprehend, the sacred law has linked it to the verbal utterance of the shahadatain (testimony of faith) for the one able to.

Therefore is the verbal utterance of the shahadatain a condition for the application of the rulings of believers upon them in this world (dunya), such as the funeral prayer over them, inheritance, marriage etc. The majority of the verifying scholars from the salaf and khalaf are of the view that it is a condition, whilst many of the jurists (fuqaha) say that it is not. Despite this difference the one who verbally utters the shadatain is without doubt a believer, even if done due to imitating (taqlid) of others. Imam al-Nawawi[38] said: this is the view of the verifying scholars and majority of the salaf and khalaf.As for Islam it is the outward performance with the limbs of acts of obedience such as, uttering the shahdatain, prayer, zakat and other acts. It was due to this that the Prophet (s) explained Islam as being: ‘To bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger, to establish the prayer, give zakat, fast in ramadan and perform Hajj if possible’
[1] Al-Bukhari (8) Muslim (16) with slight variant wordings
[1] Meaning without any doubts due to His (Taala) words: ‘And know that there is no god except Allah’
[2] Meaning coming forth from non existence to existence. Or in other words, did not exist and then was created and brought into existence. For further details refer to Sharh al-Aqaid (p.75) of al-Taftazani
[3] The scholars of belief (aqidah) have three terms that they often use
i) Necessary (wajib): This is that whose non-existence the intellect cannot comprehend or regards as impossible
ii) Impossible (mustaheel): That whose existence the intellect cannot comprehend or regard as possible
iii) Possible (mumkin): That which the intellect can comprehend or hold to exist or not exist
[4] Allah (taala) said: ‘Their Messengers said: Is there any doubt in Allah, the creator of the heavens and the earth’ [Ibrahim:10] Ibn Kathir commented in his Tafsir (4/401): Meaning is their in His- Meaning Allah- existence any doubt?, the natural disposition (fitar) are witness to His existence and are bound to affirm this, for acceptance of this is necessary in sound minds.
[5] As for the Arabic term al-Qidam, al-Zabidi said in ‘Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin’ (2/21): The muslim community (ummah) has agreed with His being described with this attribute’.
[6] Al-Hadid:3
Muslim (2713) reports that the Prophet (s) would say: ‘O Allah, you ar the first, and there is none before you, and you are the last and there is none after you…’
[7] As for that which is mentioned in the sacred law regarding paradise and hell lasting forever, then this everlastingness is only because Allah wishes for them to exist for eternity, as of themselves it is possible for them to come to an end. However the pleasures and rewards of paradise will always exist according to the consensus of the muslim community, as for the punishment of the people of disbelief it has been said: it will come to an end, but this is an odd opinion which should not be given any attention.
[8] The position of Ahl al-Sunnah is that Allah (taala) is the causer/effector of all things and has the choice whether to break the habitual chain of events (adaat). See Rasail fi Aqaid Ahl al-Sunnah of Sh. Muhammad al-Hoot (p.58).
[9] Al-Imran:163
[10] Al-Ikhlas:1
[11] Reported by the six, it is a Mutawatir report. See Qatf al-Azhaar al-Mutanathirah of Imam al-Suyuti (no.4)
[12] Al-Shurah:11
[13] They are named as such because they indicate to things which can be perceived/seen in the creation. For example Zayd is powerful, knowledgeable, has a choice to do a certain act, these all can be seen in Zaid by people.
[14] Al-Nur:64
[15] Al-Talaq:12
[16] The term al-Jawhar has been used here, according to the Ahl al-Sunnah it refers to an atom or particle (al-jawhar al-fard) which can no longer be subdivided further into smaller parts. All bodies are constructed from a number of these
[17] An accident is something which needs another thing in which to exist, an example are colours which need a body or substance in which to exist. For further details refer to ‘al-Tarifat’ of al-Jurjani (p.193).
[18] Al-Anam:125
[19] This is the position of Imam Abu Hanifah, that the speech of Allah does not consist of letters and sounds. See al-Fiqh al-Akbar (p.40-51) with the Sharh of Mulla Ali al-Qari.
[20] Because a body is constructed and exists in a place which would in turn necessitate that it is created (Sharh al-Aqaid al-Nasafi p.92).
Imam al-Zabidi mentioned in his Sharh al-Ihya (2/24) that those who describe Allah (taala) as a body are misguided and are misguiding, and that al-Bayhaqi relates from his Sheikh al-Halimi that a group have deviated from the truth by their describing Allah (taala) as a body.
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbals condemnation of those who describe Allah as a body and negation of this description for Him (taala) can be found the Tabaqat al-Hanabilah of Ibn Abi Yaala (2/298)
[21] The term jawhar has been used here by the author, translated earlier as body, it is referring to all bodies being constructed from atoms.
[22] Further details of their history and beliefs can be found in the following works: al-Farq bain al-Firaq (p.225), al-Tabseer fi al-Din (p.70-71) and al-Milal wa al-Nahl (1/137/144).
[23] Al-Bukhari (50) Muslim (8)
[24] Al-Qamar:49
[25] He is Ahmad Ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Shafi. A jurist (faqih) and deeply knowledgeable of a number of Islamic sciences. He was born in in Egypt in 909 (AH) and passed away in Makkah in 973 (AH). From his authored works are Tuhfah al-Muhtaj li Sharh al-Minhaj and al-Zawajir. See Mujam al-Muallifin (2/152).
[26] Al-Tahrim:6
[27] Al-Mudathir:31
[28] ‘When the angels said: “O Maryam! Verily, Allâh gives you the glad tidings of a Word from Him, his name will be the Messiah ‘Īsā, the son of Maryam , held in honour in this world and in the Hereafter, and will be one of those who are near to Allâh.” “He will speak to the people in the cradle and in manhood, and he will be one of the righteous.” She said: “O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me.” He said: “So (it will be) for Allâh creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: “Be!” – and it is.’ (al-Imran:45-47)
[29] ‘And they stayed in their Cave three hundred years, and adding nine’ (al-Kahf:25)
[30] It is mentioned that he was a one of Suleiman (as) ministers, He (taala) said: ‘He said: “O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering themselves in obedience?” , An Ifrît (strong one) from the jinn said: “I will bring it to you before you rise from your place (council). And verily, I am indeed strong, and trustworthy for such work.” One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: “I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!” Then when he saw it placed before him, he said: “This is by the Grace of my Lord – to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful…” (al-Naml:38-40)
[31] Al-Suyuti said in his referencing of the hadith of Sharh al-Aqaid al-Nasafiyah that the hadith was reported by Abu al-Sheikh bin Hibban in Kitab al-Udhmah with a chain containing unknown narrators. It was also mentioned by Ibn Kathir in al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (1/27-28) from the same route. It was mentioned by the author of al-Mujam (5/335) from Abd al-Rahman bin Abdullah bin Ab al-Hakim from Amr bin al-Aas.
[32] This occurred in the year 23 (AH) it is reported by al-Bayhaqi in Dalail al-Nubuwwah (6/370), Abu Nuaym (525) with two chains one of which is Hasan as was mentioned by al-Hafih Ibn Hajar in al-Isabah and al-Suyuti in Takhrij Ahadith Sharh al-Aqaid. See al-Isabah (4/98) al-Sakhawi’s Takhrij of al-Arbain al-Sulamiyah (44-46)
[33] Reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan and Abu Nuaym in al-Dalail (2/574), al-Haithami said in Majma al-Zawaid (9/350) that the narrators of one of al-Tabaranis chains were those of the Sahih, except that it is mursal, as Abu al-Safar and Abu Burda did not hear from Khalid. And Allah knows best.
[34] Al-Araf:34
[35] They were given this name due to their opposing Ali (ra), they held the view that every major sin is disbelief (kufr) and the one who commits a major sin becomes a non muslim. Also those who commit major sins will be punished eternally in the next world. For more details refer to: al-Milal wa al-Nihal (1/114-139), al-Farq bain al-Firaq (72-113), al-Tabseer fi al-Din (26-36)
[36] Al-Hujurat:9
[37] Also based Minhaj al-Raghib Sharh It-haf al-Talib (p.65-66)
[38] He is Yahya bin Sharaf al-Nawawi al-Shafi (631-677 AH) A jurist, Muhaddith, Hafidh. He was born in Nawa where he studied the Quran, he then came later to Damascus where he stayed at Madrasa al-Rawahiyyah, he also taught at Dar al-Hadith. He passed away in Nawa and is buried there. See Mujam al-Muallifin (13/202)

Sharh Muqaddimah It-haf al-Talib

Salam, The following is a brief commentary based very loosely on the authors ‘Sharh’ to Ithaf al-Talib. The original text is in bold, with the commentary/notes following thereafter, more detailed discussions and biographies are present as footnotes.

In the name of Allah
– Allah is the supreme name according to the most correct opinion[1].

The author started with the Basmalah followed by the Hamdalah following the example of the Quran and due to the words of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace): ‘Every important matter which does not begin with Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim is cut off’[2]

the most Beneficient the most Merciful.
All praise is due to Allah, and Salutations and Blessings
– Due to His (taala) words: ‘Send salutatations and blessings upon him’[3]

upon our Master
-meaning the the best of creation

the Messenger of Allah.
– Referring to our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). A messenger is: a free male human given revelation of a sacred law and ordered to convey it to others

To proceed:
– A word used to move from one statement to another, it is desirable to use it in speeches and writings following the example of the Messenger of Allah (s)[4]

This is a Mukhtasar
– A mukhtasar is that which has a small number of words but a large amount of meanings.

on fiqh
– It deals with that which the responsible person must perform and that which he must avoid, its source/origin is the Quran, Sunnah, consensus and analogy. Its is the goal amongst the different sciences, the others being means, as by means of learning fiqh one comes to know the lawful and unlawful, and other legal rulings, it is the cause for the organisation of peoples lives.

according to the madhab
– That which is the strongest opinion according to the Mujtahid scholar after his having analysed the evidences

of the greatest Imam:
– The possesor of noble and praiseworthy virtues, Numan bin Thabit, whose kunyah is

Abu Hanifah (may Allah the exalted have mercy upon him)
– He was born in al-Anbar[5] and it is said in al-Kufah in 80(AH), he lived for 70 years and died in Rajab or Shaban in the year 150. According to the most correct view he died whilst in prison in Baghdad, due to his refusing to accept the position of Qadi. He was buried in the Khaizran graveyard.
His father Thabit was born a muslim, and was from the people of al-Anbar according to that which is reported from Muhammad bin Ishaq[6]
Al-Khatib[7] mentioned in his Tarikh that Abu Hanifah met four of the companions, they are: Anas bin Malik in Basrah, Abdullah bin Abi Awfah in al-Kufah, Sahl bin Sad al-Saaidi in al-Madinah and Abu Tufail Amir bin Wathilah in Makkah. He did not meet any of them except that he took from them. He took fiqh from Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman[8], Ata bin Abi Rabah[9], Abu Ishaq al-Sabiee[10], al-Haitham bin Habib[11], Muhammad bin al-Munkadir[12], Nafi’ the Mawla of Abdullah bin Umar[13], Hisham bin Urwah[14] Sammak bin Harb[15] and other major scholars from the generation of the Tabieen may Allah be pleased with them all.

From those who narrate from him and thus are his students are:
Abdullah bin al-Mubarak[16], Waki Ibn al-Jarrah[17], al-Qadi Abu Yusuf[18],Muhammad bin al-Hasan al-Shaibani[19], Dawud al-Tai[20], Fudail Ibn Iyad[21], Bishr al-Hafi[22], Ibrahim bin Adham[23] and others.

His knowledge has spread far and wide, his virtues and excellent qualities are numerous and have been mentioned elsewhere in other works.

which the legally responsible person
– Meaning the one who has reached puberty and is sane

cannot do without
– Due to that which it contains from the important legal rulings of the religion and muslim belief

if unable to study
– Due to a lack of resolve

that which is more detailed than it.

I have summarized it
– Meaning selected it

from the books of our companions
– Meaning the authors of the works in the madhab such as the book al-Kanz[24], Mukhtasar al-Wiqayah[25], Ghurar al-Ahkam[26] and Tanwir al-Absar[27]

when I saw that there was a need for it.
-For some students due the lack of their desire or ability

I have named it Ithaf al-Talib. I ask Allah
– And no one other than Him, for he is all powerful to give, and other than Him have no power

glorified be He
– Transcending him from anyone else possessing benefit and harm

to benefit by it
– Meaning by this Mukhtasar, by learning it and understanding the legal rulings contained within it

all those desirous [of seeking knowledge and teaching]
– By understanding its meanings and acting according to what it necessitates

****
[1] This is the view of the majority of the people of knowledge, due to its greatness it was mentioned by Allah 2360 times in the Quran according to some. It has also been said that the supreme name (Ism al-Adham) is al-Hayy al-Qayyum, this was the view of a group of scholars including Imam al-Nawawi. A large group also said that the gratest name was La ilah Illah Anta Subhanaka Inni Kuntu Min al-Zalimin.
Ibn Abidin said in his Hashiyah (1/7) that Imam Abu Hanifah said that Allah was the supreme name, and this was the view of al-Tahawi, many of the scholars and the majority of the gnostics (arifin).
[2] Al-Jami al-Saghir with Fayd al-Qadir (5/13, n. 6284) what it means is that it will be lacking in barakah (blessings).
[3] The full verse is: […]
Know that sending salutations upon Him(s) is compulsory (wajib). There are varying opinions as to when it is compulsory. One: After the last tashahhud of every prayer according to the Shafi scholars. Two: After accepting Islam during ones liftetime, atleast once. Three: Everytime He (s) is mentioned, this was the view of al-Halimi from the Shafis, al-Lakhami from the Malikis, al-Tahawi from the Hanafis, and Ibn Battah from the Hanbalis. Four: In every gathering. Five: At the beginning and end of every supplication/dua. See Sharh al-Safawi Ala al-Zubad.
[4] Al-Bukhari (1061) Muslim (876)
[5] In present day Iraq, for further information refer to Mujam al-Buldan of Yaqut al-Hamawi (1/305)
[6] Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar al-Muttalibi. He was a Muhaddith,Hafidh, knowledgeable of Arab history and reported their poetry. He died in the year 151. al-Dhahabi mentioned that he was a trsutoworthy narrator. See Mizan al-Itidal (2/468-475) and Mujam al-Muallifin (9/44)
[7] He is Ahmad bin Ali bin Thabit better known as al-Khatib al-Baghdadi. He was a mUhaddith, historian. Born in the year 392 and it is said 391,he was raisedin Baghdad, he travelled to learn hadith and passed away in Baghdad in the year 463. His Tarikh al-Baghdad is printed in 14 volumes. See Mujam al-Muallifin (2/3) al-Ialaam (1/172)
[8] Hammad bin Abi Suleiman, the mawla of Ibrahim bin Abi Musa al-Ashari, he was from al-Kufah and a jurist. He was a trustoworthy Mujtahid Imam. See al-Kashif (1/349) of al-Dhahabi and al-Khulasah al-Khazraji (92)
[9] Ata bin Abi Rabah, Abu Muammad al-Qurashi. He took from Aishah and Abu Hurairah. He lived till he was 80 and passed away in the year 114 or 115. See al-Kashif (2/21), al-Khulasah (p.266)
[10] He is Amr bin Abdullah Abu Ishaq al-Hamdhani al-Sabiee. One of the major scholars, he took from Jarir, Udayy bin Hatim, Zayd bin Arqam and Ibn Abbas. He lived till he was 95,and passed away in the year 127. al-Kashif (2/82)
[11] He is al-Haitham bin Habib al-Sairafi al-Kufi, he narrates from Ikrimah, Hammad bin Abi Suleiman, Muharib bin Dithar and al-Hakam bin Utaibah. Imam Ahmad praised him. See Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (11/91)
[12] Muhammad bin al-Munkadir bin Abdullah bin al-Hudair al-Taymi al-Madani, the Hafidh. He narrates from his father, Aishah, Abu Hurairah, Abu Qatadah, Abu Ayyub an Jabir. See al-Kashif (2/224)
[13] He is Nafi Abu Abdullah al-Faqih, he narrates from his Mawla Ibn Umar, Abu Hurairah and Aishah. He was one of the major Imam’s of the Tabieen. See al-Kashif (2/315)
[14] Hisham bin Urwah Abu al-Mundhir, and it is said Abu Abdullah al-Qurashi, he narrates from his uncle Ibn al-Zubair and his father. Abu Hatim said: He is trustworthy and an Imam in hadith. See al-Kashif (2/337)
[15] Sammak bin Harb Abu al-Mughirah al-Dhuhli, one of the scholars of al-Kufah. He narrates from Jabir bin Samurah and al-Numan bin Bashir. He said: I met 80 of the companions. See al-Kashif (1/465) and al-Khulasah of al-Khazraji (p.155-156)
[16] Abdullah bin al-Mubarak bin Wadih Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Hanzali, the Sheikh of Khurasan. His students include: Ibn Mahdi, Ibn Maeen and Ibn Arafah. He was born in the year 118 and passed away in Ramadan 181. See al-Kashif (1/591)
[17] Waki Ibn al-Jarrah Abu Sufyan al-Ruwasi, one of the major scholars. His students include: Ahmad, Ishaq and Ibrahim bin Abdullah al-Qassar. He was born in 128 and passed away on the day of Ashurah in 197. See al-Kashif (2/350)
[18] He is the Imam, Allamah, Jurist (Faqih) of the Iraqi’s, Yaqub bin Ibrahim al-Ansari al-Kufi. The student of Abu Hanifah. He narrates from Hisham bin Urwah, Abu Ishaq al-Shaibani, Ata bin al-Saaib and their level. Those who narrate from him include: Muhammad bin al-Hasan, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Bishr bin al-Walid, Yahya bin Maeen, Ali bin al-Ja’d, Ali bin Muslim al-Tusi. Ibn Maeen said: Abu Yusuf is from the people of hadith and people of the sunnah. See al-Tadhkirah of Hafidh al-Dhahabi (1/293) and al-Intiqa of Ibn Abd al-Barr (p.329)
[19] Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin Farqad al-Shaibani, the author of the six works which are called the Zahir al-Riwayah which transmit the relied upon positions of the Hanafi madhab. Ibn Abd al-Barr quoted al-Shafi as saying: I have not met a man more intelligent than him. Al-Intiqa (337).
He was raised in al-Kufah, he studied with Abu Hanifah, Misar bin Kidam and Sufyan al-Thawri. He also narrated from Malik bin Anas and is one of the narrators of his Muwatta, al-Awzai and Qadi Abu Yusuf. He came to Baghdad where people came to study from him hadith and fiqh. His students include: Imam al-Shafi, Abu Suleiman al-Jawzjani, Abu Ubaid al-Qasim bin Salam and others. See Tarikh al-Baghdad (2/172)
[20] He is Dawud bin Nasr al-Tai, the jurist and ascetic, he narrates from Abd al-Malik Ibn Umair,Humaid al-Taweel, Ibn Abi Laylah, Amash and others. His students include: Ibn Uyaynah, Ishaq bin Mansur al-Saluli, Waki and Abu Nuaym. He was declared trustworthy by Ibn Maeen and was included by Ibn Hibban in the trustworthy narrators. Muharib bin Dithar said: If Dawud had been in the previous communities Allah would have informed us about him. See al-Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (3/203).
[21] Fudayl bin Iyad al-Tamimi al-Khurasani the ascetic. His students include: Yahya al-Qattan, Ibn Mahdi and others. He was trustworthy and praised greatly. He lived over 80 years and passed away in Muharram 187. See al-Kashif (2/124).
[22] He is Bishr bin al-Harith bin Abd al-Rahman bin Ata bin Hilal al-Marwazi, the well known trustworthy ascetic. He passed away in the year 227 at 67 years of age. Se Taqrib al-Tahdhib (p.122)
[23] Ibrahim bin Adham Abu Ishaq al-Balkhi, the ascetic. He passed away in the year 162. See al-Kashif (1/208)
[24] Kanz al-Daqaiq, one of the relied upon texts in fiqh. It is by Imam Abu al-Barakat Abdullah bin Ahmad al-Nasafi (d.710). See Kashf al-Zunun (2/1515).
[25] Mukhtasar al-Wiqayah known as al-Nuqayah, by Sadr al-Shariah Ubaidullah bin Masud al-Mahbubi al-Hanafi (d.750). See Kashf al-Zanun (2/2021)
[26] Ghurar al-Ahkam fi Furu al-Hanafiyyah is a text by Mulla Khusrau (d.885), he also authored a commentary to it called Durar al-Hukkam. See Kashf al-Zanun (2/1199)
[27] Tanwir al-Absar wa Jami al-Bihar fi al-Furu by Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Tumurtash al-Ghazzi (d.1004) he also authored a commentary to it called Fath al-Ghaffar. See Kashf al-Zanun (1/501)