Kaydani: Wajibat of the Prayer -Pt.4

*Chapter Two: The Compulsory Elements (wajibat)
They are twenty-one in total
Amongst them that which relate/apply to all worshippers in all prayers, and they are seven in total.
And amongst them that which are specific to some worshippers in some prayers, and they are fourteen in total.

As for the general:
1- The wording of takbir for the tahrimah
2- The first sitting[1]
3- The tashahhud in the two sittings[2]
4- Stillness in bowing and prostrating[3]
5- Performance of every obligatory act (fard) in its place[4]
6- Performance of every compulsory act (wajib) in its place[5]
7- Exiting with the wording of salam[6]

As for the specific:
1- Specifying the first two units for recitation
2- Fatihah for the first two units
3- Limiting the recitation of the fatihah to once[7]
4- Adding a chapter, or three short verses or one long verse to the fatihah[8]
5- Preceding the surah with the fatihah[9]
All of these are for the one who must recite[10]

[1] Due to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) always performing the final sitting. The one who accidentally forgets to perform the final sitting makes the prostration for forgetfulness (sujud al-sahw). Al-Tahawi and al-Karkhi were of the view that the first sitting was recommended (sunnah). Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/232), al-Tabyin (1/106)
[2] This is the position favoured by the author of al-Wiqayah (p.145) and was declared to be the correct position in al-Hidayah (1/46). Al-Tumurtashi said in Minh al-Ghaffar Sharh Tanwir al-Absar: ‘A group chose the view the tashahhud in the first sitting to be sunnah, however the Zahir al-Riwayah is that it is compulsory (wajib), which is the more correct position’.
[3] It is that the body parts when bowing and prostrating are still for the length of a tasbihah, this is likewise the case for being still between the bowing and prostrating, and the two prostrations. Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/234), Sharh al-Wiqayah (p.146)
[4] It is to perform every act in its place and order in the prayer without delay. Al-Jawhar.
It is possible that this compulsory act (wajib) also encompasses the keeping of order of those actions that occur a number of times in one unit such as the prostration (sujud), or in the whole prayer such as the number of units because they are compulsory (wajib). Fath al-Qadir (1/241), al-Bahr (1/315), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/309-310), Minhah al-Khaliq (1/314-315), Rad al-Muhtar (1/310), Sharh al-Wiqayah (p.145)
[5] Meaning in its place that it is legislated for it to be performed without any delay. Such that if the one praying finished reciting the fatihah and pauses silently for the length of a rukn the prostration of forgetfulness is compulsory upon him. Al-Jawhar
[6] Meaning twice, once to the right and once to the left without the wording “alaikum” being compulsory. However it is recommended to say so. The congregations following of the Imam ends with first salam before the saying of the word “alaikum”. Al-Maraqi (p.253), al-Tanwir and Dur al-Mukhtar (1/314)
[7] Al-Nablusi said in al-Jawhar: Meaning in the obligatory (fard) and compulsory (wajib) once without repetition. Such that if it is repeated forgetfully the prostration of forgetfulness (sujud al-sahw) is obligatory upon him. It will be mentioned later in the chapter of permissible acts the permissibility of repeating the fatihah in the optional prayers.
The basis of this is that is: ‘it is reported from Muhammad bin Hasan al-Shaybani (Allah be pleased with him) that he said: the one who recites al-Hamd twice in the first two units must perform the prostration of forgetfulness. Because he has delayed the recitation of the chapter by repeating the fatihah. If however he recites al-Hamd then a chapter then al-Hamd he does not perform the prostration for forgetfulness, as it is as if he recited a long chapter’. As mentioned in al-Badai (1/167).
However in Hashiyah al-Shalabi ala al-Tabyin (1/128) it is mentioned that: ‘the repetition of the fatihah in one standing is not legislated. The author of al-Dirayah said: but it is mentioned in Fatawa al-Itabi that the repetition of the fatihah in the optional prayer is not disliked due to a narration regarding its like. Ibn Amir Hajj said: Allah knows best about the authenticity of this’.
Likewise in Majma al-Anhur (1/148) it is mentioned: ‘If a compulsory act (wajib) is repeated it is not necessary to perform the prostration of forgetfulness. However in al-Khazanah and other works it says: The repetition of the fatihah in the first two units makes the prostration of forgetfulness necessary. It is possible that it be said: that the repetition does not make it necessary, rather the leaving of the surah does, because it is necessary that it follows the fatihah. It should be stipulated as being specific to the obligatory prayers, because the repetition of the fatihah in the optional prayers is not disliked as mentioned in al-Quhistani’.
It is mentioned in Rad al-Muhtar (1/460-461): ‘If the fatihah is recited twice in one of the first two units the prostration of forgetfulness is compulsory, due to the delaying of a compulsory act (wajib) which is a chapter as mentioned al-Dhakhirah and other works. Likewise if most of the fatihah is recited then repeated as mentioned in al-Zahiriyyah. As for if the it is recited before the surah once and after it once it is not necessary as mentioned in al-Khaniyyah, and this was chosen by the authors of al-Muhit, al-Zahiriyyah, al-Khulasah and was declared to be Sahih by al-Zahidi as it does not necessitate delay. Because bowing is not compulsory at the end of a surah, for if he joins between a number of surahs after the fatihah nothing is necessary upon him (in terms of sujud al-sahw) as mentioned in al-Bahr
. The author of Sharh al-Muniyah said: it is stipulated with the first two units because limiting to once in the last two is not compulsory, such that sujud al-sahw is not necessary by the accidental repeating of the fatihah, even if it is deliberate it is not disliked as long as long as it does not lead to the lengthening of the prayer for the congregation or the unit being longer than the one before it’.
[8] Meaning with the fatihah in the first two units of the obligatory (fard), and in all the units of the optional and witr prayers. It is sufficient to recite the shortest surah such as al-Kawthar or that which is similar in terms of length which is three short verses. It is likewise sufficient to recite one or two verses which are equal in length to three short verses. Tanwir al-Absar (1/308), Nur al-Idah (p.248), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/308)
[9] Due to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) regularly performing it. So if the person praying accidentally recites a surah first, then realises and recites the fatihah, and then goes onto recite the surah, he performs sujud al-sahw. Tanwir and Dur al-Mukhtar (1/308), al-Maraqi (p.249)
[10] Meaning these five compulsory (wajib) acts are compulsory upon all those who must recite, they are: the Imam, the one praying alone, the one who joined the prayer late and missed some of the units. Alternatively the above five compulsory acts are not obligatory for the one praying behind the Imam, the illiterate and the mute. Al-Jawhar

Kaydani: Faraid of the Prayer – Pt.3

As for (the obligatory elements) within (the prayer), they are seven:
1- Standing[1]
2- Recitation[2]
3- Bowing[3]
4- Prostration[4]
5- The final sitting[5]
6- Order in the performance of an action which is performed once in each unit or the whole prayer[6]
7- Exiting with an action[7] of the one praying[8]
[1] Standing is obligatory for the one able to stand and make prostration (sajda), i.e. If the person praying can stand but not prostrate then they do not have to stand. This also applies to the obligatory (fard) prayers. In the optional (nafl) prayers the one praying can offer them sitting down. The definition of standing is: that if the one praying was to stretch out his hands they would not reach his knees. This is the minimal extent of standing, the proper method is to stand upright. Al-Tabyin (1/104), al-Hadiyyah al-Alaiyyah (p.62), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/298), al-Maraqi (p.224), Hashiyah al-Tahtawi (p.225)
[2] It is to recite a long verse or a short verse consisting of two words in each of the two units of an obligatory (fard) prayer, and in all of the units of the witr and optional (nafl) prayers. However the one only reciting this amount is sinful due to his leaving a compulsory (wajib) act which is the recitation of the fatihah. The definition of recitation is that the person praying should be able to hear themselves as long as there is nothing preventing them doing so. Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/226-227), al-Hadiyyah al-Alaiyyah (p.62-63), al-Maraqi (p.225)
[3] This is by the lowering of both the head and the back, the minimum amount being that the one praying being closer to the bowing position than the standing position. This is known by if he was to stretch his hands they would reach the knees. The complete method of bowing is such that head is inline with the back. Al-Maraqi (p.228), Hashiyah al-Tahtawi (p.229), al-Hadiyyah al-Alaiyyah (p.63)
[4] The obligatory (fard) aspect of prostration is to place a part of the forehead on the ground, it is compulsory (wajib) to place most of the forehead on the ground as mentioned in Rad al-Muhtar (1/300). The following have also been mentioned as conditions:
i) It is compulsory (wajib) to prostrate on the hard part of the nose and the forehead. It is valid to prostrate on the forehead alone, and according to the strongest opinion one should not prostrate by placing only the nose on the ground except due to an excuse. It is disliked to perform prostration by only placing either the nose or the forehead on the ground. This was reported by al-Shurunbulali in al-Maraqi (p.231). Asad reported from Abu Hanifah that it is valid to prostrate by only placing the nose on the ground even without an excuse. However his two students held the view that it was invalid. See al-Umdah (1/160).
However the apparent meaning of the text of al-Wiqayah (p.144) is that the obligatory (fard) elements of prostration are with the forehead and nose, in al-Nuqayah (1/228) it is mentioned that this is the fatwa position. Therefore this means that if the person praying prostrates by only placing the forehead, or only placing the nose on the ground without an excuse they will not have performed the obligatory (fard) act required of them. Ibn Malak said in Sharh al-Wiqayah: ‘the later scholars gave the ruling that it was not permitted to only prostrate with the nose without an excuse’. See Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/228).
ii) The person praying should prostrate on an area where the forehead can settle. Therefore prostrating on something where the forehead is not settled such that if the person praying pushed their head further down it would descend further is not correct. Examples given mention prostrating on snow and cotton without fully pushing down the head to the point that it cannot be placed any lower. Al-Binayah (2/207), Naf’ al-Mufti (p.252), al-Maraqi (p.231)
iii) The place of prostration should not be raised from the ground level more than half a cubits length, so that the actual prostration can take place. A slight raising from the ground level of the area of prostration is of no consequence. An exception to this is due to crowding and lack of space prostrating on the back of another person offering the same prayer. It should be noted if the person on whose back prostration is made is not praying or is offering a different prayer then it is not valid.
iv) That the person praying perform the bowing (ruku) before the prostration (sujud). Al-Maraqi (p.226-233)

[5] It is the length in which the person praying would be able to recite the tashahhud. Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/230), al-Maraqi (p.235)
[6] It is the preceding of the standing before bowing, bowing before prostrating in that which is obligatory (fard) to perform once in every unit (rakah) and is not repeated. The prostration occurs twice in every unit, and the order between the prostrations is compulsory (wajib) not obligatory (fard). Al-Jawhar, al-Tabyin (1/105), al-Hidayah (1/46),al-Mabsut (1/80)
[7] This is according to Abu Hanifah according to the understanding of al-Burdai. Al-Karkhi understanding was that it was not obligatory (fard). Al-Qari mentioned in Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/230) that al-Karkhi’s was the correct position.
[8] What this means is that the person praying exits the prayer deliberately after completing it with an action, or statement which negates the prayer. It is obligatory (fard) to do so, whether it is by saying: Assalamu Alaikum, eating, drinking or walking. However doing such would be prohibitively disliked because of the leaving out of the compulsory (wajib) act which is the salam. Al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/311), Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/230)

Kaydani: Faraid of the Prayer – Pt.2

*Chapter One: The Obligatory Elements (Faraid) of the Prayer
They are fifteen, some of them being outside (the form of the prayer) and some within (the prayer).

As for (the obligatory elements) outside (the form of the prayer) they are eight:
1- The time[1]
2- Cleanliness of the body[2]
3- Cleanliness of the clothing[3]
4- Cleanliness of the place[4]
5- Covering of nakedness[5]
6- Facing the direction of prayer (qiblah)[6]
7- The intention[7]
8- The first takbir[8]

[1] It is a condition that the person praying believes that time for the prayer has entered, so that the act of worship will be performed with a firm intention, and to be sure the time for prayer has not expired as mentioned in al-Maraqi (p.218).
[2] From ritual and physical impurities. Ritual impurity (najasha hukmiyah/hadath) is that which the sacred law has classified as an impurity even though the person may seem outwardly clean and not have any physical filth upon themselves. An example of this is the state of not being in wudu.
Physical impurity (najasah al-haqiqiyah/khabath) are things such as urine and its like. Umdah al-Riayah (1/156)
[3] The condition for the cleanliness in terms of clothing is any garment which moves with the movement of the person wearing it. Maraqi al-Falah (p.208)
[4] It is a condition that the place of the two feet, hands, knees and forehead are clean according to the strongest opinion in the madhab. If one wishes to pray upon an area which is filthy and a thin piece of cloth which is not transparent is placed on the area, where the odour of the filth cannot be smelt through it, the prayer is correct. Naf’ al-Mufti (p.215), al-Maraqi (p.208)
[5] A mans nakedness is: from below the navel to below the knee. Rad al-Muhtar (1/271)
A free woman’s nakedness is: all of her body except her face, hands and feet. As for the opinion within the madhab that the woman’s feet are not a part of her nakedness, this is the position chosen by the author of al-Wiqayah (p.142), it was declared to be Sahih by the author of al-Hidayah (1/43), al-Muhit (p.84), al-Tabyin (1/96). The author of Majma al-Anhur (1/81) said: ‘this is the more correct position’, and al-Haskafi said in al-Dur al-Muntaqa (1/81): ‘this is the relied upon position of the madhab’.
[6] The one praying in Makka and able to see the Kaaba must face the Kaaba itself, because of his ability to do so. It is obligatory for the ones who cannot see the Kaaba including those far away to face its direction. Al-Maraqi (p.212-213)
[7] The intention is for the one praying to know in their heart which prayer they are offering. Articulating with tongue has been classified by the scholars as being desirable (mustahab), as it enables the one praying to gather his thoughts together in order to make the intention. Also due to the change in times and numerous preoccupations on peoples minds, articulating the intention verbally is regarded as being helpful. If the person praying was asked as to which prayer they were offering and they replied immediately without pausing, then the prayer is valid, and this is the more correct position. Al-Wiqayah (p.143), Umdah al-Riayah (1/159), Hadiyyah Ibn Imad (p.456), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/415), Naf’ al-Mufti (p.237), al-Maraqi (p.217)
[8] It is also referred to as the prohibiting takbir (tahrimah) because it prohibits within the prayer permissible acts such as eating, drinking, and speech. Al-Jawhar

Kaydani/Umdah Intro and Terms Pt.1

Salam, This translation and commentary was prepared not too long ago whilst I was staying in Liwa on the edge of desert famously known as the empty quarter.
This text is perhaps the shortest work on hanafi fiqh, it only covers the rulings related to the prayer, and has been taught in some parts of the muslim world. The reader will find a commentary in the form of footnotes taken from Sh. Salah Abul Hajjs edition.
The name of the text is famously known as Khulasah al-Kaydani, and according to some of the scholars such as Imam al-Nablusi the title of the work is ‘Umdah al-Musalli’.
I realise that the footnoting maybe lengthy at times, and therefore difficult to follow, If some kind soul wishes to volunteer to place the footnotes directly below the text then ‘Marhaba!’.
Much more could be written about the ascription of the work to the author Imam Lutfullah al-Nasafi, and the discussion surrounding exactly who he is, also some of the non fatwa positions in the text (which have been highlighted in the footnotes). But that is for another time and place inshallah, for now the aim of this is for students to benefit. Wassalam
All praise is due to Allah the Lord of the worlds, salutations and blessings be upon His messenger Muhammad and all of his family.

Know that the slave/servant is tribulated[1] between obeying Allah (the most high) thereby being rewarded and between disobeying Him and being punished.

Tribulation is related to that which is permissible and impermissible, in terms of both performance and non performance.

Therefore it is necessary for an exposition of the types of legislated and non legislated acts, along with an explanation of their meanings and rulings so that it may be easier for the student to fully understand them.

So we say and with/through Allah is success:

The legislated actions are of four categories:
1- Obligatory (fard)
2- Compulsory (wajib)
3- Recommended (sunnah)
4- Desirable (mustahab)
They are followed by: permissible (mubah)

The non legislated actions are if two categories:
1- Unlawful (muharram)
2- Disliked (makruh)
They both are followed by: invalidator (mufsid) of an act which has been begun

In total there are eight categories.

As for the Fard: it is that which is established by a definitive proof in which there is no doubt (shubha)
The ruling for it is: reward for its performance, punishment for non performance without a reason[2], disbelief for denying regarding that which there is agreement[3].

As for the Wajib: it is that which is established by a proof in which there is some doubt.
The ruling for it is: similar to that of the fard in terms of action and not belief, such that its denier does not commit disbelief

As for the Sunnah: it is that which the Prophet (s) performed habitually[4] leaving it only once or twice.
The ruling for it is: reward for its performance, blame for its non performance[5] in the sunnahs of guidance[6].

As for the Mustahab: it is that which the Prophet (s) performed at times and left at other times[7], and that which is beloved to the early Muslims (salaf)[8].
The ruling for it is: reward for its performance and no blame for it being left[9]

As for the Mubah: it is that which the slave has a choice in between performing and leaving.[10]
The ruling for it is: neither reward nor punishment for its performance or leaving.

As for the Muharram: it is that regarding which the prohibition is established without any conflicting evidence[11].
The ruling for it is: reward for its being left for Allah (azza wa jall), punishment for its performance, disbelief for regarding as permissible that which there is agreement as being unlawful.

As for the Makruh: it is that regarding which the prohibition is established with the presence of a conflicting evidence[12].
The ruling for it is: reward for it being left for Allah, fear of punishment for its performance, not being disbelief to regard as lawful.

As for the mufsid: it nullifies the action which has been begun
The ruling for it is: punishment for its deliberate not accidental performance

Then know that the prayer encompasses the first four in terms of from the sacred law, and the last four are found in it by nature[13]

Therefore it is necessary to detail each category in a succinct but comprehensive way organised into eight chapters in order to make it easy for the believers.

[1] Meaning that the human being is tested by Allah (the most high) as mentioned in the Quran that: ‘Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight’. [Yusuf Ali translation]
The reason for why humans feel that they are undergoing trials and tests is because of the choice that they have been given in being obedient or disobedient to the divine commands. al-Jawhar
It should also be noted that this world is a place of being tested and tribulated and is not our final abode, unlike the dealing of many with this world as if it is everlasting and that they will never leave it.
[2] Meaning that there are times when an obligatory (fard) action can be left or changed, examples of this are a traveller not having to fast and shortening the prayer.
[3] This does not apply to the differences of opinion of the scholars about whether certain acts are obligatory (fard) or not. Al-Jawhar
[4] Imam al-Nablusi mentioned in al-Jawhar that this definition also includes that which was habitually practised the four khalifah’s (Allah be pleased with them). This definition was also supported al-Luknawi who said in Tuhfah al-Akhyar (p.84): ‘Many of our companions such as the authors of al-Hidayah, al-Tahrir, Bahr al-Ulum, authors of al-Kashf and al-Tahqiq, al-Tabyin, Islah wal-Idah, Mirqat al-Usul, al-Muhit, al-Khulasah, al-Nahr, Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi, al-Ta
htawi and others defined a recommended act (sunnah) in a manner that it includes the practice of the khalifah’s, making it such that the one who leaves it is blamed. Rather the author al-Binayah regarded leaving it as being punishable’.
[5] Leaving the emphasized recommended acts (sunnah al-muakkadah) is close to being unlawful, and this is also the status of the prohibitively disliked act (makruh tahrimi). The scholars mentioned that leaving the emphasized sunnah may lead to being deprived of things such as intercession in the next world. Tuhfah al-Abrar (p.87-88), Rad al-Muhtar (6/337)
[6] Meaning the emphasized recommended acts (sunnah al-muakkadah)
[7] This definition is also mentioned in al-Tabyin (1/77), al-Hidayah (2/92), al-Inayah (2/92) and Majma al-Anhur (1/139). Imam Ibn Abidin said in Minhah al-Khaliq (2/278) echoing that which was mentioned by Ibn Nujaim in al-Bahr al-Raiq (1/29): ‘Know that the scholars of usul do not differentiate between mustahab and mandub…that which was not habitually performed is mandub and mustahab, even if it was not performed after its being encouraged as mentioned in al-Tahrir. According to the jurists (fuqaha): mustahab is: that which was performed by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) at times and left at other times. Mandub is: That which was performed once or twice to teach its being permissible as mentioned in Sharh al-Nuqayah. Ibn Nujaim said in Kitab al-Taharah:…the preferred view is that of the scholars of usul’.
[8] Al-Nablusi mentioned in al-Jawhar that this applies even if it was not practised by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Also what is meant by the term salaf are the early Imams such as Abu Hanifah and his students (Allah be pleased with them all).
Imam al-Nablusi’s definition of the term salaf is very interesting and is overlooked by many of those who use the term. This is because the salaf had numerous differing understandings of Islamic law which resulted in different schools of law (fiqh). Therefore if we say that we follow the salaf we should clarify which of the schools of the salaf we follow. Is it the school of Kufah which developed over time into the hanafi madhab, or the school of Madinah which developed into the Maliki madhab? If one does not specify which school of the salaf they follow it would be illogical as we know that the salaf in some instances had a varying number of views on one legal issue, which it would be impossible for a person to implement all at once.
[9] Al-Luknawi said in Tuhfah al-Abrar (p.91-92): ‘To conclude, the leaving of the sunnah in terms of belittling or mocking even it be from the zawaid is disbelief. Leaving it deliberately but not by way belittling is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrimi) being a sin and deserving of blame if it is an emphasized (mukkadah) sunnah, it makes no difference if it is the sunnah of the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) or of companions (Allah be pleased with them)’.
[10] It is that which the legally responsible person may perform or leave without any consequence of reward or punishment. It could also be defined as that which the person has a choice whether to perform or not. Al-Jawharah (2/280), Dur al-Mukhtar and Rad al-Muhtar (6/336)
The mubah maybe performed with an accompanying intention which would make it something rewardable or sinful. An example would be to eat with the intention of having enough strength to worship Allah (the most high). Likewise the wearing of fine clothing although permissible may become a sin if worn with the intention of arrogance and feeling of superiority over others. Al-Durar al-Mubahah (p.8-9), al-Jawhar
[11] Meaning a conflicting evidence which would indicate to that action being permissible
[12] Meaning the conflict of two evidences, one which indicates it to be permissible, the other which indicates to it being unlawful. Makruh tahrimi is closer to the unlawful (haram) due to this conflict of evidences where the evidence for it being unlawful is given precedence and therefore it is necessary for it to be left. Al-Ikhtiyar (5/413), Hasan al-Dirayah (4/95)
As for the disliked (makruh tanzihi) the one who performs it is not sinful, however one is rewarded for avoiding it. Not performing a disliked (makruh tanzihi) act is preferable. Rad al-Muhtar (6/337)
[13] What this means ‘by nature’ is that a human beings nature is to be forgetful or to be lazy, such that these two traits sometimes affect the performance of the prayer. Therefore ones nature of being lazy may lead to performing something in the prayer which is disliked etc. al-Jawhar

Adhkar (Invocations) After the Prayer

Salam, some of us were fortunate enough to read the beginners text on fiqh ‘Tuhfa al-Mubtadi’ authored by one of the Ahsai hanafi scholars. A translation of it has been prepared (May Allah Taala facilitate its publication). During the sessions where we would gain clarification of some elements of the commentary authored by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla, he (Sh. Yahya) suggested that the section on the adhkar after the prayer be added in from his appendix to Sh. Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s ‘Wasilah al-Falah’. I requested Sh. Yahya to select some of the more essential adhkar for us from his compilation and he kindly did so. Apologies for the typsetting below, Arabic/English can be a bit awkward. Note: All adhkar have been referenced by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla and can be found in the footnotes.
The Invocations (Adhkar) and Supplications (Dua) To Be Recited After the Prayer
Compiled by Sheikh Yahya bin Muhammad al-Mulla

It is desirable to make much invocation and supplication after making the salam from the obligatory and other prayers, Due to His Taala’s words:

‘So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations [al-Sharh:7-8]

The scholars of Tafsir explaining this verse said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate[2]

From that which is reported regarding this is:

Abu Umamah (ra) said that it was said to the Messenger of Allāh (s) : “Which Supplication (Dua) is most likely to be accepted?” He said: “In the last part of the night and after the obligatory prayers[3]

From the invocations (adhkar) and supplications (dua) to be recited after the obligatory prayers is to say:

Three timesأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ

اللهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَ مِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَاذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَ الإِكْرَام[4]

The above can be recited after the obligatory prayers, they may also be recited after the non obligatory prayers along with the following invocations:

لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
اللَّهُمَّ لا مانع لما أعطيتَ ولا مُعطيَ لما منعت، ولا ينفع ذا الجَدِّ منك الجَدُّ[5]
آية الكرسي[6]
33 timesسُبْحَانَ الله
33 timesوَ الْحَمِدُ للهِ
33 timesاللهَ اَكْبَر
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ[8]

And then make dua (supplicate) with the following:
اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الجبن وأعوذ بك أن أُرَدَّ إلى أرذل العمر، وأعوذ بك من فتنة الدنيا وأعوذ بك من عذاب القبر[9]
[1] Taken from Sheikh Yahya’s appendix to Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Mulla’s selection of invocations for the morning and evening entitled ‘Wasilah al-Falah’.
[2] Reported by Abd bin Humaid, Ibn al-Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Mardawayh, from a number of routes, from Ibn Abbas (ra) regarding the His Taala’s words: “So when you have finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship, And to you Lord turn your invocations”, He said: When you finish the prayer then supplicate to your Lord, and ask your need. It is reported by Ibn Abi Dunya from Abdullah bin Masud, it is reported al-Faryabi, Abd bin Humaid, In Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim from Mujahid. See al-Dur al-Manthur of al-Suyuti (6/364-365).
[3] Reported by al-Tirmidhi (3494) who said the hadith was Hasan Gharib.
[4] Thawban (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah after finishing his prayer would ask for forgiveness thrice and say: اللهم أنت السلام … الخ
Al-Walid said: I said to Al-Awzai “How was the asking for forgiveness?” He said:
استغفر الله، استغفر الله، استغفر الله
Reported by Muslim (591), Abu Dawud (1513), al-Tirmidhi (300), al-Nasai in al-Mujtaba (3/68), Ibn Majah (928)
[5] Warrad the Mawla of al-Mughirah bin Subah said: Mughirah wrote to Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan (ra): The Messenger of Allah (s) would say after the prayer when he had said the salam: لا إله إلا الله وحده … الخ
Reported by al-Bukhari (844), Muslim (593), Abu Dawud (1505), al-Nasai (3/70), in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah (129).
[6] Abu Umamah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) said: ‘Whoever recites Ayah al-Kursi after every obligatory prayer, will not be prevented from entering paradise except by death’. Reported by al-Nasai (9928) in al-Kubra
[7] Uqbah bin Amir said: The Messenger of Allah (s) ordered me to recite the muawadhatayn after every prayer. Abu Dawud’s version mentions Muawadhat. Therefore {قل هو الله أحد}
, {قل أعوذ برب الفلق} and {قل أعوذ برب الناس} should be recited. Reported by Abu Dawud (1532), al-Tirmidhi (2905), al-Nasai (3/68).
[8] Abu Hurraira (ra) said that the Prophet of Allāh (s) said: “Whoever glorifies Allāh thirty three times after every Salāh, and praises Allāh thirty three times and magnifies Allāh thirty three times and says to complete the hundred There is no god but Allāh. He is alone and has no partner. To Him belongs sovereignty and to Him belongs all praise and He has power over all things,” his sins will be forgiven even if they are like the foam of the sea. Reported by Muslim (595), Abu Dawud (1504), al-Nasai (9970)
[9] Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (s) would seek protection with these
words: اللهم إني أعُوذُ بك من الجُب


Salam, the short piece below was written some three years ago after the mawlid at Wembley. I came to know of the blessed Sharh of the Shamail by Imam al-Lahji during the lesson of Sh. Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki which we attended during Umra the previous year. This was the lesson whose picture is on the banner above, mashallah after the lesson he kindly gave me, Imran A and Khayyam S licenses to narrate hadith from him (May Allah have mercy on him).

Asslamu Alaikum

Sheikh Hamza’s mentioning at the mawlid recently that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) liked the colour green jogged my memory about something i had read, alhumdulillah I managed to locate it, and thought i would share it with you. I found it in Sheikh al-Lahji’s commentary on the Shamail compiled by Sheikh Yusuf al-Nabahani, the text of the hadith is in square brackets, the rest is Sheikh al-Lahjis explanation, he said (1/293):
[And] Ibn al-Sunni and Abu Nuaym narrate in ‘al-Tibb al-Nabawi’ with a weak chain from Ibn Abbas May Allah be please with them both that:[He] the Messenger of Allah [Peace and Blessings upon Him liked to look at greenery] meaning trees and green vegetation… [and running/flowing water] meaning He loved to look at them and found pleasure in it, His liking to look at them was not for the reason that He would eat the greenery or drink the water

Sayyid Ibrahim al-Khalifah al-Hasani al-Shafi

I found this old picture of Sayyid Ibrahim al-Khalifah who is a Shafi Scholar and respected for his attention to the sciences of hadith. I visited him twice in al-Ahsa, once at his masjid opposite the fort pictured elsewhere on this blog.
The second time was in the basement of his home where he was reading Sahih al-Bukhari with his students. He began the lesson by reading hadith for quite some time, and then went round each student asking them to read several hadith each, alhumdulilah I was honoured to be able to read to him when my turn came.
After the dars I asked him for Ijazah which he kindly gave me, unfortunately I do not have his thabat at hand to scan, however it should be noted that he narrates from over 70 different Shuyukh.
He has studied the Shafi madhab with the scholars of al-Ahsa, is known for his abilities as a Munshid and has a number of students, some of them quite young who study with him and look up to him as a father figure.
It is not difficult to see why as the Sheikh is one of the most friendliest scholars I have met, and one quickly feels at ease around him.
May Allah swt keep him in good health and enable us to benefit from him further.
NOTE: The picture above was taken some time ago

It-haf: Nullifiers of Wudu -Pt.6

It is Nullfied by:
– Meaning the wudu

That which exits
– Meaning appears

from the two passageways,
– The front and the rear, even if it be a small amount, whether it be an excretory product or not[1]

the flowing of filth[2]
– Such as blood and pus

from other than them,
– Meaning other than the two passageways, by the impurity flowing to a place which is required to be washed in wudu or ghusl. Therefore blood flowing within the eye from one side to the other is not regarded as nullifying the wudu.
The defintion of flowing is: that the the blood rises and flows from the cut.
If a person has a cut and wipes away the blood as soon as it appears, such that if he had not then it would have flowed onto the skin, then the wudu is still nullified. If someone squeezes a cut such that the blood flows, then also the wudu is nullified according to the chosen opinion.
If a person bites an object and then notices traces of blood on the object, or cleans the mouth with a toothstick and notices blood on it, the wudu is not nullified aslong as it is not known if there was a flow of blood.

vomiting a mouthful
– Meaning filling the persons mouth, such that it is not possible to close the mouth except with difficulty.[3]

if not phlegm,
– Wudu is only nullified if that which is vomited is food. As for phlegm by itself, its being vomited does not nullify even if it is a large amount. If the phlegm vomited is admixed with food, that which dominates is taken into consideration, and thus the ruling will be given to that which is more. Likewise clotted blood which descends from the head does not nullify[4]

sleep of one not firmly seated[5],
– In his method of sitting, such that he falls asleep whilst on his side, lying back down or face down. Wudu is therefore not nullified by one sleeping firmly seated in a cross legged position even if leaning against something where it to be removed they would fall back.[6]
A person falling asleep whilst performing prayer in the sunnah manner does not nullify his wudu.[7]

– Whichever form it may take, it is defined as being when the intellect is overcome and causes the person to faint.

– It is defined as being when the intellect no longer fully exists.

– It is defined as that a person would not walk in an absolute straight line

loud laughter[9]
– whether deliberately or forgetfully, it is defined as being heard by the person themselves and the one next to them.

of an adult praying,
– Thereby excluding those who are not adult, therefore the laughter of a child in his prayer does not nullify their wudu, however it would still nullify the prayer.
Also the loud laughter of an adult is a nullifier of wudu only in a complete prayer, thereby excluding the funeral prayer and prostration of recitation (sajdah al-tilawah), however it would still nullify the prayer itself.

lustful touching.
– By the coming in contact of the private parts[10]

Additional Rulings: If a doubt occurs in a persons mind whether they have washed some parts of the body or not, then they are to wash that bodypart aslong as they have not finished the wudu, if this doubt ocurs after finishing the wudu then they are not to go back and wash. Likewise if he is certain that he has not washed one of the body parts but is not sure which one it is, he washes the left foot as it is one of the last body parts to be washed.
If a person is certain of their being in a state of purity and has doubts whether they are in a state of ritual impurity then they take go with the view of which they are certain, likewise the opposite. If he is certain of both occuring but is not sure of which of them occurred first then the person is to regards themselves as pure.
If a person has doubts about the purity of water and clothing then this doubt is given no credence.

[1] The hanafi scholars hold the view that something such as a stone where it to be excreted by an individual nullifies the wudu, even though it is not normally regarded as being an excretory product. One of the evidences they cite in support of this view is that which is reported by al-Darqutni in his Sunan (1/151 with al-Taliq al-Mughni) from Ibn Abbas in a marfu form that: ‘Wudu is from that which exits not that which enters’, the chain contains the narrator Shubah regading whom there is some disagreement, some of the scholars of hadith declared him trustworthy whilst others weakened him. The more correct view is that it is a mawquf narration of Ibn Abbas as related by Saeed bin Mansur. Al-Bayhaqi said that it was also reported from Ali. See Fath al-Qadeer (1/25).
[2] Al-Darqutni reports in his Sunan (1/157) that the Messenger of Allah (s) said: ‘Wudu is from every flowing blood’. For other evidences and reasoning refer to Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/62).
[3] Abu Dawud (2381), al-Nasai, al-Tirmidhi (87) who said: this is the most authentic thing regarding this subject, al-Hakim in his Mustadrak (1/426) who said: Sahih according to the two Sheikhs (Bukhari and Muslim) all narrate that: Abu Darda said : ‘The Prophet (s) vomited and then performed wudu. Later I met Thawban in the masjid of Damascus and I mentioned it to him. Thawban said: He is right; I poured water for the wudu of the Prophet (s)’.
[4] All that which is not an impurity, such as non flowing blood, vomit less than a mouthful in not filth according to Abu Yusuf, whereas Muhammad bin Hasan said that it was filth out of precaution, however the fatwa is with the position of Abu Yusuf. This rule has been expressed by some as: ‘That which is not an impurity is not filth’. Therefore any of the above if they were to come into contact with an object or liquid would not cause them to become filthy.
Al-Aini said in his work al-Binayah (1/128) that flowing blood from a cut which does not reach an area which has to be washed (in wudu or ghusl) is classified as being pure (tahir) according to the most apparent view. This was the view of Abu Yusuf and was also the position chosen by al-Karkhi, Abu Abdullah al-Qallas, Muhammad bin Salamah, Abu Nasr, Abul Qasim and Abu Layth. Muhammad bin Hasan’s view was that it was still filth (najas) and he was supported in this view by Abu Bak
r al-Askaf and Abu Jafar al-Hindawani.
The author of al-Hidayah supported the first view and declared it to be Sahih, as was quoted by al-Tumurtashi in Fath al-Ghaffar who added that this position was relied upon by the authors of the mutun and therefore is the madhab position.
In al-Jawharah al-Nayyarah (1/9) its mentioned that fatwa will be given according to the position of Abu Yusuf if it comes into contact with solid materials like clothes and the body, and that fatwa will be given according to the position of Muhammad bin Hasan if it comes into contact with liquids such as water. This position was cited by Ibn Nujaim in al-Bahr (1/115), al-Tumurtashi in Fath al-Ghaffar, al-Haskafi in al-Dur al-Mukhtar (1/95) and was affirmed by the author of glosses on al-Dur al-Mukhtar, namely al-Tahtawi, Ibn Abidin and al-Rafi.
[5] Ibn Abidin (1/141) mentions that sleep is a natural state which occurs in humans without their control, it prevents the outward and inner senses from fully functioning despite their being sound. It also prevents the use of the intellect despite its being present.
Sleep and that which is mentioned after it from unconsciousness, insanity and intoxication are situations where there is a possibilty that the person may have entered a state of ritual impurity without noticing, therefore it is regarded as being so out of precaution.
The above rulings are deduced from the following hadiths: Aishah (ra) said that the Messenger of Allah (s) fell unconscious, He awoke and washed to pray, He then again fell unconscious, then awoke and washed’, reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
And based on His (s) words ‘ The eyes are the strap of the rear passageway, so the one who sleeps should perform wudu’, reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and graded Hasan by Ibn al-Salah, al-Nawawi and al-Munhiri. For further details refer to Nasb al-Rayah (1/44-47).
[6] Due to the hadith of Anas who said ‘The companions of the Messenger of Allah (s) waited for the Isha prayer until their heads began nodding up and down from drowsiness and sleep. They would then pray without doing wudu ‘ reported by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud. See al-Talkhis al-Habir (1/180).
[7] Due to the hadith of Ibn Abbas (ra) that the Prophet (s) said: ‘The one who sleeps whilst in the sajda does not have to perform wudu except if he lies down, for if he lies down his joints become loose’ reported by Ahmad (1/256) Abu Dawud (202) al-Tirmidhi (77) and others. See Nasb al-Rayah (1/44-45) of al-Zaylai.
[8] Ibn Abidin (1/144) defined it as a state which overcomes the mind due to alchohol and its like causing the intellect not to function properly, resulting in it not being able to differentiate between matters which are good and evil.
[9] Loud laughter is defined as that which can be heard by the person themselves and those next to them. Laughter on the other hand is defined as being heard by the person themselves but not by the person next to them, this nullifies the prayer and not the wudu. Smiling is that to which there is no sound, it neither affects the prayer nor the state of wudu. See Tabyin al-Haqaiq of al-Zaylai (1/11).
The evidence for it is that which is reported by Ibn Adiyy in al-Kamil from the hadith of Ibn Umar who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (s) said: Whoever laughs out aloud in the prayer must repeat the wudu and the prayer’. Its chain contains Baqiyyah who is a mudallis, however he has explicitly stated hearing, and a truthful mudallis if explicit about hearing results in the removal of the problem of tadlis in the chain. And Baqiyyah belongs to this category of narrators. See Nasb al-Rayah (1/48).
Abu Hanifah narrates in his Musnad that He (s) said ‘While the Messenger of Allah (s) was praying with the people, a person with a problem with his sight, walked into a covered well and fell. At this some people burst out laughing. The Messenger of Allah (s) said: whoever amongst you laughed out loud should repeat their wudu and their prayer’. See Fath al-Qadir (1/35)
This is an issue in which the Hanafis are alone in following the hadith and have abandoned analogy (qiyas) because of it. It is a clear proof that the Hanafis give precedence to the hadith over anology and that they are the most stringent of people in following the hadith. See al-Lubab (1/45)
[10] Without a barrier between the two desirous individuals, this is the position of Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf. They argue that this situation would normally result in the emission of madhi (pre-seminal fluid) which nullifies the wudu and is treated like the scenario of sleep mentioned earlier. It is evident however that mere contact between the two private parts of two individuals is does not always result in the release of madhi, even if it be with desire, and therefore does not nullify the wudu. This was the view of Muhammad bin Hasan and was relied upon by many of the scholars. See Hashiyah Ibn Abidin.

It-haf: Makruhat of Wudu -Pt.5

Disliked (Makruh) Acts of Wudu[1]
From its disliked (makruh)[2] acts are:
Striking the face with water, excessive use of water[3], to not wash the body parts thoroughly, wiping three times with new water.

[1] The makruhat of wudu are not mentioned in the main text, rather the author mentions them in his commentary Minhaj al-Raghib p.80.
[2] Makruh according to the fuqaha is of two types: ‘makruh tahrimi’ which is meant when the term makruh or karaha is used in its unqualified sense, its ruling is that avoiding it is compulsory (wajib) as mentioned in Fath al-Qadeer.
The second type of makuh is: ‘makruh tanzihi’, its ruling is that avoiding it is better than performing it.
One will find in the books of the hanafi madhab that at times the scholars may classify something as being makruh, but do not specify whether it is tahrimi or tanzihi. In this case it is necessary to look at evidences for that particular issue. If the prohibition regarding it is conjectural (zanni) then it is classified as makruh tahrimi. If the evidence is not prohibitory in meaning but rather indicates that the thing should be left then it is tanzihi. For a more detailed and precise discussion refer to al-Bahr al-Raiq (2/20).
[3] Excess is defined as using more water than is required to perform wudu, due to the hadith of Abdullah bin Umar: ‘The Messenger of Allah (s) passed by Sa’d while he was performing wudu and said, “What is this extravagance, Sa’d?” He said, “Is there extravagance in the use of water?” He said, “Yes, even if you are at a flowing river’. Reported by Ahmad (1/222) and Ibn Majah (425)

It-haf: Mustahab Acts of Wudu -Pt.4

Its Desirable (Mustahab) Acts:
– Meaning of washing (wudu), it is also called mandub, adab and fadilah. It is defined as that which was performed by the Prophet (s) once/at times, and left at other times, and that which is beloved to the early muslims (salaf).[1]

Beginning from the right,
– Meaning with the right side when washing the hands and feet[2] not the face nor ears.

wiping the neck,
– With the back of the hands[3] the throat is not wiped because to do so would be an innovation.

the transmitted invocations during it
– There are a number of invocations mentioned which can be recited whilst washing and wiping the various body parts.[4]

Additional Rulings: From the etiquettes (adab) of washing (wudu) are: To face the qiblah in other than the state of istinja[5], to perform it before the entering of the prayer time except for the one with a chronic excuse[6], the moving of a loose ring[7], not seeking help from another person[8], to not engage in wordly talk, to join between the intention of the heart and verbalizing with the tongue, the lengthening of the white patches/streaks[9], the recitation of surah al-Qadr and praying two units[10] in other than a disliked prayer time.[11]

[1] In the work Tuhfa al-Fuqaha (1/21) of Ala al-Din al-Samarqandi said the difference between sunnah and adab is defined as that: the sunnah is that which was the continuous practice of the Messenger of Allah (s) which was only left by Him (s) once or twice. Adab is defined as being that which was performed by the Messenger of Allah (s) once or twice and was not habitually performed.
The scholars have stated that there is no difference between the terms: mustahab, mandub, adab, fadilah, nafl. See Dur al-Mukhtar with al-Hashiyah (1/123).
[2] Beginning with right side when washing has been mentioned as being mustahab in a number of works of the hanafi madhab such as al-Kanz, al-Tanwir and Sharh al-Durar. It has been classified as being sunnah in the work al-Shirah and in al-Hidayah as being from the fadail.
However Abu Dawud (4141) and Ibn Majah (402) report that He (s) said: ‘If you perform wudu then begin from your right side’, it is also reported by Ibn Khuzaimah (178) Ibn Hibban (1078) in their Sahih’s. A number of companions who relate His (s) manner of performing wudu clearly mention his beginning the washing the hands and feet from the right hand side, this therefore indicates this was His (s) regular practice as the companions related what they saw from His (s) habitual performance, therefore it is a sunnah.
[3] Abu Ubaid al-Qasim narrates in al-Tahur (192/386) from al-Qasim bin Abd al-Rahman from Musa bin Talha said: ‘He who wipes his neck with his head will be protected from the ghul on the day of judgement’.
Ghul: a ring of steel placed around the neck to debase and torture. The hadith is Mawquf but it takes the ruling of Marfu as the content of the hadith was not mentioned based merely on opinion. It is strengthened by that which is mentioned in a marfu form is Musnad al-Firdaws from the hadith of Ibn Umar that: ‘Wiping the neck is a protection from the ‘ghul’ on the day of judgement’ however its chain is weak, except that that it is agreed that the weak hadith are acted upon in virtuous actions’. See Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/57) and Talkhis al-Habir (1/135-136).
[4] Al-Tahtawi said in his Hashiyah ala Maraqi al-Falah (p.45): Ibn Ameer Hajj said: Our Sheikh the Hafidh of his age, Shihab al-Din bin Hajr al-Asqalani was asked regarding the narrations cited in the Muqaddimah of Abu Layth regarding the invocations for the limbs. He answered: They are weak and the scholars are lenient when mentioning the weak hadith and acting upon it in virtuous actions. None of them are established from the Messenger of Allah (s), neither from his statements, nor actions. Therefore there is no harm in acting upon them based on the principles of the weak (hadith) along with its conditions.
Imam al-Nawawi said in al-Adhkar (p.81) that the jurists (fuqaha) have said it is mustahab to recite the prayers whilst washing each body part.
[5] Because it is an act of worship or a prelude to it, therefore one chooses for it the best place which is to face the direction of prayer (qiblah).
[6] A person with a chronic excuse is someone repeatedly nullifying his wudu and is unable to control it. This person performs wudu for the time of every prayer, and his wudu is nullified with the prayer time finishing. Therefore should he perform wudu before the entering of the prayer time- eg. Performing wudu near the end of the time of Zuhr so that he may pray Asr- his wudu is nullified as soon as the time for Asr starts. His wudu will only have lasted till the end of Zuhr time. Therefore in the case of a person with a chronic excuse there is no benefit in his performing wudu before the time for that prayer starting.
In the case of the person whom is normal and does not have a problem (ie. Someone who is not classified as having a chronic excuse) it is sunnah for them to make wudu for the prayer before the time of prayer entering. After the entry of the prayer time it becomes fard (obligatory) to perform wudu. This is one of the issues wherein a sunnah act is superior to a fard action, Imam al-Suyutis versification of these issues can be found in al-Ashbah wa al-Nazair (p.275).
[7] As for a ring which is tightly fitted on the finger then it is necessary to move it in wudu and ghusl in order for the water to reach the skin area it covers. Because the Prophet (s): ‘When He would perform wudu for the prayer would move the ring on His finger’ reported by Ibn Majah (449).
[8] Meaning not seeking help with the actual washing and wiping of the body parts. As for someone pouring water for the one performing wudu, or providing water for them then there is nothing disliked in this, even if it was requested.
Al-Bukhari said in his Sahih (1/248 with the Sharh of Ibn Hajar) that: The Messenger of Allah (s) departed from Arafah came to al-Shuab and relieved himself. Usamah s
aid: I poured water for Him whilst He performed wudu…’.
[9] The Messenger of Allah (s) said, “My nation will come with bright streaks of light from the traces of ablution…If one can lengthen his streak of light, he should do so’, reported by al-Bukhari (1/45).
What is meant by lengthening the streaks of light is going beyond the obligatory area to be washed in wudu.
[10] Due to His (s) words: ‘If one performs and perfects his ablution and prays two rak’ah with his heart and face (completely on his prayer), Paradise becomes his’, reported by Muslim (17).
[11] Because the leaving of a disliked act is superior to the performance of a desired act.