*Chapter One: The Obligatory Elements (Faraid) of the Prayer
They are fifteen, some of them being outside (the form of the prayer) and some within (the prayer).
As for (the obligatory elements) outside (the form of the prayer) they are eight:
1- The time
2- Cleanliness of the body
3- Cleanliness of the clothing
4- Cleanliness of the place
5- Covering of nakedness
6- Facing the direction of prayer (qiblah)
7- The intention
8- The first takbir
 From ritual and physical impurities. Ritual impurity (najasha hukmiyah/hadath) is that which the sacred law has classified as an impurity even though the person may seem outwardly clean and not have any physical filth upon themselves. An example of this is the state of not being in wudu.
Physical impurity (najasah al-haqiqiyah/khabath) are things such as urine and its like. Umdah al-Riayah (1/156)
 The condition for the cleanliness in terms of clothing is any garment which moves with the movement of the person wearing it. Maraqi al-Falah (p.208)
 It is a condition that the place of the two feet, hands, knees and forehead are clean according to the strongest opinion in the madhab. If one wishes to pray upon an area which is filthy and a thin piece of cloth which is not transparent is placed on the area, where the odour of the filth cannot be smelt through it, the prayer is correct. Naf’ al-Mufti (p.215), al-Maraqi (p.208)
 A mans nakedness is: from below the navel to below the knee. Rad al-Muhtar (1/271)
A free woman’s nakedness is: all of her body except her face, hands and feet. As for the opinion within the madhab that the woman’s feet are not a part of her nakedness, this is the position chosen by the author of al-Wiqayah (p.142), it was declared to be Sahih by the author of al-Hidayah (1/43), al-Muhit (p.84), al-Tabyin (1/96). The author of Majma al-Anhur (1/81) said: ‘this is the more correct position’, and al-Haskafi said in al-Dur al-Muntaqa (1/81): ‘this is the relied upon position of the madhab’.
 The one praying in Makka and able to see the Kaaba must face the Kaaba itself, because of his ability to do so. It is obligatory for the ones who cannot see the Kaaba including those far away to face its direction. Al-Maraqi (p.212-213)
 The intention is for the one praying to know in their heart which prayer they are offering. Articulating with tongue has been classified by the scholars as being desirable (mustahab), as it enables the one praying to gather his thoughts together in order to make the intention. Also due to the change in times and numerous preoccupations on peoples minds, articulating the intention verbally is regarded as being helpful. If the person praying was asked as to which prayer they were offering and they replied immediately without pausing, then the prayer is valid, and this is the more correct position. Al-Wiqayah (p.143), Umdah al-Riayah (1/159), Hadiyyah Ibn Imad (p.456), Dur al-Mukhtar (1/415), Naf’ al-Mufti (p.237), al-Maraqi (p.217)
 It is also referred to as the prohibiting takbir (tahrimah) because it prohibits within the prayer permissible acts such as eating, drinking, and speech. Al-Jawhar